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Entered according to an act of Congress, 


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the Confederate States, 

for the Eastern district of Virginia. 



this book: 



The success of the first edition of this work 
has induced the publisher to undertake its repub- 

The book has been carefully revised by the au- 
thor, and -considerably enlarged. In the absence 
of official information, several errors unavoidably 
entered into the original work". These have been 
corrected in the present edition, and (it is believed) 
the book has been very greatly improved. 

Profoundly grateful for the success of the first 
edition, the author offers to the public the work 
in its present form, trusting for its success to the 
same generous support that has sustained his past 

Richmond, May 1, 1864. 


The materials from which this book has been prepared have been 
collected since June 1861, though for a different purpose. 

Upon the death of General Jackson, the author determined to pre- 
pare a sketch of his life, a plan which he had had in contemplation 
for several months. He had fairly entered upon his task when he 
learned that a distinguished Southern author was engaged in a 
similar undertaking. 

Believing, however, that there is room enough in the South for 
two such books, he has continued his labor, and the result of it is 
now offered to the public. 

He had just put the work in press, when he was informed that 
another life of General Jackson, and one which is to be more elab- 
orate than any yet published, was being prepared by the Reverend 
Doctor Dabney, formerly of General Jackson's staff. Feeling as- 
sured, however, that there is still room for his book, he has perse- 
vered and the work is at last ready. 

He takes this opportunity of expressing his sincere wish that the 
narratives of both Captain Cooke and Doctor Dabney may meet 
with the same success that he desires for his own. 

Many of the incidents related, came under the immediate obser- 
vation of the author, and the remainder are drawn from authentic 

The book was completed and put in press on the 29th day of 
May,- but the failure to procure paper, and other difficulties hard to 
overcome, have prevented its appearance at an earlier period, 

October 1863. 




It would be difficult for any one to do justice to the 
narration of such a life as that of Thomas J. Jackson — • 
a life pure and spotless as the dew of the morning ; 
grand and glorious as the full blaze of the noontide sun. 
To a stranger such a task must be an impossibility ; and 
even one who knew and loved him, may well pause in 
dismay as he contemplates the magnitude of the task he 
has imposed upon himself. Many Avill enter upon such 
an undertaking: some with a desire to preserve to the 
country and to the world a record of the services of a 
good and great man ; others from more sordid motives 
which in this age but too often invade the most sacred 
places. Among these there is room for one who knew 
and loved him, to offer his humble tribute to the glorious 
dead ; and though that tribute may be imperfect, it will 
be at least the labor of love, and as such, it is hoped, 
will prove acceptable to those to AYhom it is offered. 


General Jackson was of English descent. His great- 
grandfather John Jackson, and his great grandmother, 
emigrated to tEis country at a very early, day, and settled 
upon the south bank of the Potomac. They did not re- 
main there long, however, but soon removed to what is 
now Lewis county, in the western portion of Virginia. 

Their son Edward was surveyor of Harrison county, 
and subsequently represented the county of Lewis in the 
legislature for several years. 

In early life, his son Jonathan Jackson, who was born 
in Lewis county, moved' to the town of Clarksburg in 
Harrison county, for the purpose of studying law with 
his cousin Judge John G. Jackson of that place. In due 
time he received his license and entered upon the prac- 
tice of his profession with his cousin Judge Jackson. By 
his practice he acquired some reputation and property, 
and soon after entering upon his duties he married Miss 
Neal, a daughter of Thomas Neal of Wood county. By 
this lady he had four children — two sons and two daugh- 

Thomas Jonathan Jackson, the youngest of these 
children, was born in the town of Clarksburg in Harrison 
county, on the 21st day of January 1824. When he was 
scarcely three years old his father died, and his mother 
soon followed. Before his death Mr. Jackson became 
involved as security for some of his friends, and his pro- 
perty was swept away. The children were thus left with- 
out any means of support. 

Shortly after the death of his parents, Thomas was 
taken by an uncle to Lewis county. This uncle was liv- 
ing on the farm on which the father of Thomas had been 
born, and there the orphan boy remained until he reached 


the age of seventeen years. During this period he spent 
a portion of his time in working on the farm, and the re- 
mainder in attending an old field school in the neighbor- 
hood, where he received the rudiments of a plain English 

From his earliest childhood he exhibited a remarkable 
degree of self-reliance and energy. He was quiet and 
reserved, but kind and gentle in his feelings and man- 
ners. He studied hard while at school, and was prompt 
and faithful in the discharge of his duties. These quali- 
ties exhibited in a degree remarkable in one so young, 
could not fail to attract the attention and win the admi- 
ration of all with whom he was thrown. Nor were they 
allowed to pass unrewarded. The people of Lewis wish- 
ing to assist the young man so bravely struggling to raise 
himself in the world, conferred upon him the office of 
constable of the county when he was but sixteen years 
old. He accepted the appointment, and in spite of his 
extreme youth, discharged his new duties faithfully and 
with ability. There are some persons in this world to 
whom God gives natures and characters older and ma- 
turer than their years, and young Jackson was one of 
these. * 

In his seventeenth year he solicited and received an 
appointment as cadet in the military academy at West 
Point, and to accept this position, resigned the office of 

It is related of him, upon what seems to be good au- 
thority, that as soon as he heard that there was a vacancy 
at West Point, he determined to secure it for himself. 
He immediately set out and walked a long distance through 
rain and mud to a point from which he could take the 


stage to Washington city. Arriving there be sought oitt 
Mr. Hays, the member of congress for his district, and 
travel-stained and with his face flushed with excitement, 
presented himself before him and told him that he wanted 
the place at West Point then vacant. Astonished and 
amused by such a request coming from one who seemed 
so humble and so unsuited to such a position, Mr. Hays 
entered into conversation with young Jackson and en- 
deavored to dissuade him from trying to enter the West 
Point academy. But the energetic youth was not to be 
discouraged, and in the conversation evinced such a 
marked degree of intelligence, that his application was 
successful and he received the desired appointment. 

He entered the military academy in 1842, and remained 
there for four years. While a cadet he was noted for his 
unwavering attention to his duties. His sen3e of duty 
was always very high, and his performance of it most 
faithful. It was necessary for him to study very hard. 
His mind had not received the advantages of an early 
education, and he had many difficulties to overcome. He 
was never content with a partial knowledge of anything : 
his mind never relaxed its grasp upon a subject until he 
had thoroughly mastered it. 

On the 1st of July 1846, Cadet Jackson graduated 
with high distinction, and was brevettcd second lieutenant 
amd assigned to duty with the first regiment of artillery 
of the United States army. The war with Mexico had 
begun, and there the young and the brave of the country, 
and especially of the South, were hastening, burning 
with a noble desire to distinguish themselves in the cause 
ot the country. 

The regiment to which Lieutenant Jackson was as- 


signed was already in Mexico with the army under Gene- 
ral Taylor. As soon as he received his orders to join his 
regiment in Mexico, he lost not a moment in proceeding 
there, where he arrived late in the year 1846. It was 
not his fortune to see any active service while under the 
command of General Taylor, as that portion of the regi- 
ment to which he was attached was not engaged in any 
important operations. But the time which was thus af- 
forded him for studying his new profession and duties 
was not wasted in idleness. 

Early in the year 1847, troops were drawn from Gene- 
ral Taylor's army and sent to the island of Lobos, where 
General Scott was organizing an expedition against the 
city of Vera Cruz. Lieutenant Jackson was ordered to 
that point with his battery. 

On the 9th of March 1847, the army of General Scott, 
landed near Vera Cruz, and on the next day began the 
investment of the city. This Avork was begun by Gene- 
ral Worth, and was carried on successfully. Batteries 
commanding the city were erected and armed with siege 
and naval guns. At last all was ready, and at four 
o'clock on the afternoon of the 22d of March, the bom- 
bardment began. 

Lieutenant Jackson was assigned the command of one 
of the batteries erected for the destruction of the devoted 
city. Exposed to great hardships, he exhibited the most 
unvarying cheerfulness, and, the object of a heavy fire, 
he worked his guns with such skill and courage as to at- 
tract the attention of the commanding general and re- 
ceive his highest commendation. For his "gallant and 
meritorious conduct" at the siege of Vera Cruz, he was 
promoted to the rank of first lieutenant. 


After the fall of Vera Cruz, the army advanced to- 
wards the city of Mexico. On the 18th of April the 
battle of Cerro Gordo was fought and won. In this 
action Captain John Bankhead Magruder, (who, like 
Lieutenant Jackson, had been assigned to duty with the 
heavy artillery), led the party that stormed the enemy's 
works at Cerro Gordo. The Mexicans were driven from 
their strong position. Captain Magruder was the first 
artillery officer to enter the works. He captured a Mexi- 
can field battery, which he turned and served with great 
effect upon their flying columns. General Scott observ- 
ing this, rode up to him and presented him with the guns, 
which afterwards became so famous under the name of 
" Magruder' 's light battery." 

Lieutenant Jackson was very anxious to be transferred 
from the heavy artillery service to a field battery ; and 
as soon as he found that his friend, Captain Magruder, 
had been placed in command of one, he bent every energy 
to secure a transfer to that battery. In speaking of this 
in after years, he remarked to a friend: "I Avanted to 
see active service. I wished to be near the enemy and 
in the 'light, and when I heard John Magruder had got 
his battery, I bent all my energies to be with him, for I 
knew if there was any fighting to be done, Magruder 
would be on hand." 

While Jackson was thus engaged, the army continued 
to push on, and in August came within sight of the city 
of Mexico. From almost the same spot where, three 
hundred years before, Cortes and his followers looked 
down upon the distant halls of the Montezumas, the Ameri- 
can army beheld the scenes vliich were soon to be made 
famous by the gallant deeds they were to achieve there. 


The passes on the direct road to the city had been well 
fortified and garrisoned by the Mexicans, but the coun- 
try upon the flanks had been left unprotected because 
their commanders deemed i-t utterly impossible for any 
troops to pass over it and turn their positions. El Penon, 
the most formidable of these, was reconnoitered by the 
engineers, who reported that it would cost at least three 
thousand lives to carry it. Not wishing to make so great 
a sacrifice of his troops, General Scott resolved to turn 
the Dosition instead of attacking it. Eeconnoisances of 
the city of Mexico and its. defences were ordered, and it 
was discovered that the works on the - south and west 
were weaker than those at any other points. General 
Scott now moved to the left, passed El Penon on the 
south, and by the aid of a corps of skilful engineers, (fore- 
most among whom stood Captain Robert E. Lee), moved 
his army across ravines and chasms which the Mexican 
commanders had pronounced impassable, and had left 
almost entirely unguarded. General Twiggs led the ad- 
vance, and halted and encamped at Chalco on the lake of 
the same name. "Worth followed, and passing Twiggs, 
.encamped at the town of San Augustin, eight miles from' 
the capita-1. As soon as Santa Anna found that the 
Americans had turned El Penon and advanced towards 
the south side of the city, he left that fortress and took 
position in the strong fort of San Antonio, which lay di- 
rectly in front of Worth's new position. Northwest of 
San Antonio, and four miles from the city, lay the little 
village of Churubusco, which had been strongly fortified 
by the Mexicans. A little to the west of San Augustin 
was the fortified camp of Contreras with a garrison of 
about six thousand men. In the rear was a reserve force 


of twelve thousand men lying between the camp and the 
city. The whole number of Mexicans manning these de- 
fences was about thirty-five thousand, with at least one 
hundred pieces of heavy and light artillery. 

General Persifer F Smith was ordered to advance 
with his brigade, (the 1st of the 2d division of regulars), 
and carry the entrenched camp at Contreras, while 
Shields and Pierce should move between the camp and 
Santa Anna at San Antonio, and prevent him from going 
to the assistance of the force at Contreras. At 3 o'clock 
on the morning of the 20th of August 1847, the ex- 
pedition set out and at daylight made the attack on 
the entrenched camp, which was carried after several 
hours hard fighting ; those of the enemy who escaped 
retreating to Churubusco. As soon as Contreras was 
captured, the army advanced upon the works at Churu- 
busco, and after a stubborn fight succeeded in driving 
the enemy from them. 

In these battles Lieutenant Jackson behaved most gal- 
lantly, and was mentioned " for gallant services" in the 
official report of General Twiggs. For his conduct in 
these engagements he was brevetted captain, but this 
promotion did not reach him until some time afterwards. 
Lieutenant Jackson had obtained his transfer to the light 
artillery service, and was ordered to report to Captain 
Magruder. Of his conduct, Captain Magrucler in his 
official report, (which is, singularly enough, addressed to 
Captain J. Hooker), speaks as follows : 

_ " I reported to General Twiggs, and was ordered by 
him to advance towards the enemy's battery. * * * 
About 2 o'clock P. M., the battery was placed in front of 
the enemy's entrenchments at the distance of about -nine 


hundred yards. * *t * My fire was opened * * * 
and continued with great rapidity for about an hour. * * 
In a few moments Lieutenant Jackson, commanding the 
second section of the battery, who had opened a fire upon 
the enemy's works from a position on the right, hearing 
our own fire still farther in front, advanced in handsome 
style, and being assigned by me to the post so gallantly 
filled by Lieutenant Johnstone,* kept up the fire with 
great briskness and effect. * * * * 

Lieutenant Jackson's conduct was equally conspicuous 
throughout the whole day, ami I cannot too highly com- 
mend him to major-general's favorable consideration." 

After the death of Lieutenant Johnstone, Jackson be- 
came first lieutenant of the battery, and filled that post 
with skill and distinction. 

On the 8th of September the battle of Ml Molino del 
Hey was fought and won by the American army. 

Having determined to carry the city of Mexico by 
storm, General Scott gave orders for the final assault. 
On the morning of the loth September 1817, the attack 
was begun, and by night the strong castle of Chapultepec 
and the Belen and San Cosme gates of the city had been 
carried by the American troops. Early the next morn- 
ing (the 14th) the city was taken possession of. In the 
actions which led to the capture of the city, Lieutenant 
Jackson behaved with flic most conspicuous gallantry, 
and as a reward for his services was brcvetted major. 

In his official report of the battle of Chapultepec, 
General Scott speaks of him as follows: 

" To the nori.h ami at the base of the mound inaces- 

i(1 ''ill' '; a (*■'"•," r.'iiv.n*P!5 V^foi-i 


sible on that side, the 11th infantry under Lieutenant- 
colonel Herbert, and the 14th under Colonel Trousdale, 
and Captain Magruder's field battery 1st artillery, one 
section advanced under Lieutenant Jackson — all of Pil- 
low.'s division — had, at the same time, some spirited 
affairs against superior numbers, driving the enemy from 
a battery in the road and capturing a gun. In these the 
officers and corps named gained merited praise. * * * * 
Having turned the forest on the west, and arriving oppo- 
site to the north centre of Chapultepec, Worth came up 
with the troops in the road under Colonel Trousdale, and 
aided by a flank movement of a part of Garland's brigade, 
in taking the one gun breastwork, then under fire of 
Lieutenant Jackson's section of Magruder's battery." 

In the official report of General Worth, I find the fol- 
lowing complimentary notice of the brave young artille- 
rist : 

" After advancing some four hundred yards we came to 
a battery which had been assailed by a portion of Ma- 
gruder's field guns — particularly the section under the 
gallant Lieutenant Jackson, who, although he had lost 
most of his horses and many of his men, continued chi- 
valrously at his post combatting with noble courage." 

In closing his report, General Worth tenders his ac- 
knowledgments to Lieutenant Jackson " for gallant con- 

General Pillow says : 

" I had placed Colonel Trousdale with the 11th and 
14th regiments, and one section of Magruder's battery, 
under command of Lieutenant Jackson, on the road lead- 
ing on the left of Chapultepec to the city, with instruc- 
tions to advance on that road. * * * * Magruder's 



field battery engaged a battery and a large force of the 
enemy in the road immediately on the west of Chapulte- 
pec. The advanced section of the battery, under the 
command of the brave Lieutenant Jackson, was dread- 
fully cut up and almost disabled. * * * * 
Captain Magruder's field battery, one section of which 
was served with great gallantry by himself, and the other 
by his brave lieutenant, Jackson, in the face of a galling 
fire from the enemy's entrenched positions, did' invaluable 
service preparatory to the general assault." 

The account given in the report of Captain Magruder 
is more complete, and I give it entire, as nearly as pos- 
sible. This report embraces descriptions of events which 
occurred on the 8th, 11th, 12th, 13th and 14th of Sep- 
tember. It is as follows : 

" On the 8th instant at daylight, I was directed by 
Major-general Pillow to move rapidly from the hacienda, 
near Mixcoac, through Tacubaya, to support, if necessary, 
Major-general Worth's division, then fiercely engaged 
with the enemy near Chapultepec. This order was com- 
plied with, and I arrived on the field in time to witness 
the defeat of the enemy * * * and to assist in 
driving off a large body of cavalry which threatened our 
left flank and rear ; the latter was done by a few well 
directed shots from the section under the immediate com- 
mand of Lieutenant Jackson. * * * On 
the 9th the division occupied the village of La Piedad, in 
front of which a section under command of Lieutenant 
Jackson was placed ; another being on the Piedad road. 
Finding that Lieutenant Jackson's section was nearer the 
enemy's lines, and that no attack would probably take 
place on the Piedad road, I took my post, on the 10th, 


with 'this advanced section, retaining with me Lieuten- 
ant Jackson. * * * On the morning of 
the 13th, I was directed by Major-general Pillow com- 
manding, to place the latter section, under command of 
Lieutenant Jackson, at the opposite angle— that is, on 
the left flank of Chapultepec. * * * As 
soon as our storming parties advanced sufficiently near 
the enemy to render my fire dangerous to our own troops, 
I received orders to join the other section of the battery 
at the left angle, and holding it in hand until the main 
work was carried, to dash forward upon the retreating 
foe. On reaching the spot where Lieutenant Jackson's 
section ought to have been, I found Lieutenant-colonel 
Herbert with but seventy men threatened seriously by 
the approach of a large body of infantry and cavalry. 
I had determined to leave one piece at this point and to 
unite the other with Lieutenant Jackson's section, when 
I received a message from him requesting a reinforce- 
ment of old troops. General Worth being near, I com- 
municated with him, and was ordered to withdraw Lieu- 
tenant Jackson's section to the anc;le above mentioned. 
As I rode up into this section I was dismounted by a 
grapeshot, but without material injury, and succeeded in 
finding Lieutenant Jackson, whose section was, however, 
so situated as to render it more unsafe to return than to 
remain where it was. * * * Lieutenant 
Jackson reports that he was ordered to that position by 
Colonel Trousdale of the 14th infantry, under whose 
command he had fallen ; that on finding a battery of the 
enemy supported by a large force of infantry within short 
i"mge of him across the road, he fired as soon as he could 
bvmg a -.ncce into battery, und drove the enemv from the 


piece and work, after which the infantry entered it. When 
I arrived, Lieutenant Jackson was still in the advance, 
having caused a piece to be lifted by hand over the ditch. 
I detached instantly a few men to disentangle and bring 
up the disabled piece ; and passing the ditch, now nearly 
filled up by the infantry, soon overtook Lieutenant Jack- 
son, who had fired several times upon the enemy's re- 
treating columns before my arrival. * * I beg 
leave to call the attention of the major-general command- 
ing the division to the conduct of Lieutenant Jackson of 
the 1st artillery. If devotion, industry, talent and gal- 
lantry are the highest qualities of a soldier, then he is 
entitled to the distinction which their possession confers. 
I have been ably seconded in all the operations of the 
battery by him ; and upon this occasion, when circum- 
stances placed him in command for a short time of an in- 
dependent section, he proved himself eminently worthy 
of it." 

Among the many traditions concerning Lieutenant 
Jackson's exploits in the war with Mexico, which are 
preserved with the most scrupulous fidelity by the cadets 
of the Military Institute, is one relating to his conduct 
in the battle of Chapultepec. I give it as it is told there. 

Lieutenant Jackson had been placed, with his section 
of the battery, in front of a formidable battery of the 
enemy which was protected by a breastwork. His sec- 
tion had suffered fearfully from the enemy's fire, and he 
had lost many men. Many of those who remained un- 
hurt, were endeavoring to shelter themselves from the 
terrible fire which the enemy was hurling upon them. 
LieuteUbnt Jackson and a sergeant remained by one of 
the guns loading and firing as coolly as if they had been 


only at artillery practice. While in this situation, Cap- 
tain Magruder arrived with orders from General Worth 
to remove the section. This was found to be impracti- 
cable. The men were called to their guns again, assist- 
ance was sent forward by General Worth, and the battery 
advanced nearer to the enemy's works, not for an instant 
slackening its fire. The enemy abandoned the work and 
fled, and the American troops including Jackson's com- 
mand, entered and took possession of it. 

In 1858 the graduating class at the Military Institute 
resolved to ascertain the truth of the story by question- 
ing Major Jackson himself. Accordingly one of them 
related the incident as he had heard it, and turning to 
Major Jackson, asked : 

"Is it true, major?" 

Major Jackson smiled quietly and replied that it was. 

"That was a very hot place, was'nt it, major ?" asked 
another of the class. 

" Yes, sir — very hot," was the answer. 

" Why didn't you run, major ?" asked a third abruptly. 

A suppressed laugh ran around the class. Major Jack- 
son smiled and replied : 

" I was not ordered to do so. If I had been ordered 
to run I would have done so ; but I was directed to hold 
my position, and I had no right to abandon it." 

The reply was eminently characteristic of the gallant 
soldier. Duty was with him the first thought ; and in 
the performance of it no obstacle was too great to be 

_ It is related also of him, that during the time his sec- 
tion was exposed to the fire of the enemy, whil Aifi men 
were trying to shelter themselves from the storm of balls 



•which swept around them, paying no attention to his re- 
monstrances, he walked out into the road, and pacing up 
and down before his guns exposed to the heavy fire, called 
to the men — " Come back to your guns. This is nothing. 
Don't you see they can't hurt me ?" 

The capture of the city of Mexico struck a death blow 
to the power of the enemy. Shortly afterwards peace 
was declared and the army returned to the United States. 

This for awhile closed the military career of Major 
Jackson, -which, though short, had been most brilliant. 
He had joined the army in Mexico late in 1846, an un- 
known brevet second lieutenant of artillery, with nothing 
to depend upon for promotion but his individual efforts, 
and in the brief campaign from Vera Cruz to the city of 
Mexico, had reached the high rank of major — a series of 
promotions unequalled by those of any other person con- 
nected with the army of General Scott. 

The severe service through which he passed in Mexico, 
together with the climate of that country, had so im- 
paired the health of Major Jackson, that shortly after 
the close of the war he w r as forced to resign his commis- 
sion in the army and retire to private life. 

In' 1851 he applied for and received the appointment 
of professor of natural and experimental philosophy and 
astronomy and the post of instructor of artillery at the 
Military Institute of Virginia, situated near the town of 
Lexington in the county of Rockbridge.* He immedi- 
ately entered upon the discharge of his duties and re- 
mained at the Institute until the year 1861. 

* It has been said that Mejor Jackson received his appointment in 
1852. Gen. Smith, superintendent of the V M. I., states that the ap- 
pointment was made in March 1851. 


While living in Lexington lie made a profession of re- 
ligion and connected himself with the Presbyterian 
church, having for his pastor that good old man, the Rev. 
Dr. White. After connecting himself with the church, 
Major Jackson became an active and prominent member 
of it, and filled successively and almost during the entire 
period of his residence in Lexington, important secular 
positions in it. His zeal and activity in the cause of 
religion were always among his most striking character- 
istics, but while he labored constantly, he labored quietly 
and modestly. 

Shortly after his removal to Lexington, he married 
Miss Junkin, daughter of the Rev Dr. Junkin, the presi- 
dent of Washington college. The lady did not long sur- 
vive her marriage. By this union Major Jackson had 
one child, a daughter, who died in -infancy. Several 
years after the death of his first wife, he married Miss 
Morrison of North Carolina, who is still living. By this 
second marriage he had one child, a daughter, born a few 
months before his death. 

The life of Major Jackson, while a professor at the 

Institute, was marked by very little of importance. It 

was quiet and peaceful, but always useful. For nearly 

ten years he continued patiently and humbly to implant 

in the minds and hearts of the youth of Virginia who 

were placed under his charge, those teachings which have 

since enabled them to win for themselves immortal fame, 

and to serve their country so well in her hour of need. 

The Militar j Institute -of Virginia has furnished to the 

South a number of most able and accomplished officers, 

^UHWho B l la n say that the hand' of God did not place 

•^yov Jackson in his humble Dositien " n - ( W tHt be 


might aid in preparing the youth of his native state for 
the trials and services which were one day to he required 
of them.* 

Major Jackson was not as popular among the cadets as 
were some of the other professors'; but none possessed in 
such an exalted degree their respect and deference. He 
was quiet and sometimes stern in his deportment. He 
had many little peculiarities which were by the cadets 
deemed wonderful. His quiet, blunt manner was con- 
sidered by them a species of eccentricity ; and the pecu- 
liar style in which he gave his commands when at drill 
with the battery, (that long, drawling style so common to 
regular officers), never failed, to provoke a laugh. In the 
section room he would sit perfectly erect and motionless, 
holding his pencil in one hand and his class book in the 
other, listening with grave attention and exhibiting the 
great powers of his wonderful memory, which was, I 
think, the most remarkable that ever came under my ob- 
servation. The course he taught was the most difficult 
and complicated known to mathematics, running through 
at least half a. dozen text books. In listening to a reci- 
tation he very rarely used a book. He was ready at any 

* Accompanying the annual report of Adjutant-general Richardson 
to the general assembly of Virginia, is a document entitled " Memo- 
rial of the eleves of the Virginia Military Institute, in the war of in- 
dependence of the Confederate States of America, 1861-62." It pre- 
sents a list of the graduates of that institution who have entered the 
service, the positions they hold, and the fates of those who have been 
wounded or killed in battle. From this it appears that they consist 
as follows : 

Brigadier-generals, 8; colonels, 57; lieutenant-colonels, 42; majors, 
45 ; captains, 110; lieutenants, 11 ; volunteer privates 11 ; of general 
and regimental staff, 81. Total, 431. 



moment to refer to any page or line in any of the books 
and then to repeat with perfect accuracy the most difficult 
passages that could be referred to. Sometimes he would 
startle his classes with questions the most irrelevant to 
the subject of the recitation and which very few were able 
to answer. The following incident may serve to illustrate 
this : one morning in 1858 he called up a member of the 
graduating class and propounded the following question: 

" Why is it impossible to send a telegraphic dispatch 
from Lexington to Staunton?" 

The cadet seemed surprised at being asked such a ques- 
tion, but endeavored i$ account for the difficulty by sta- 
ting that the iron in the mountains would draw the mag- 
netic current from the wires. 

A smile passed over the major's features, and he cut 
him short in his explanation with : 

"No, sir. You can take your seat." 

Another was called up, and he was equally unable to 
shed any light upon the mystery. Another shared the 
same fate, and another still, and all the while Major Jack- 
son evinced in his quiet way the greatest amusement at 
the perplexity of the unfortunate individuals. At last 
the question had gone nearly around the class. A young 
man, whose humor and audacity had made him famous 
among his comrades, was called up and asked to explain 
the matter. For awhile he, too, seemed completely non- 
plussed ; but then his countenance suddenly brightening, 
he turned to the major and exclaimed slyly : 

Well, major, I reckon it must be because there is no 
telegraph between the two places !" 

" Y °? are ri S ht > sil V said Major Jackson, now as grave 
as a judge. « You can take your seat," 


A shout of laughter greeted this remark, and the major 
looked on as calmnly as if nothing had happened, and 
when order was restored, returned to the subject of the 
recitation with the most perfect coolness. 

His even temper was sorely tried by the annoyance to 
which the cadets subjected him. It was their greatest 
delight to worry the professors — especially " Old Jack," 
as he was familiarly called. The drill battery Avas man- 
aged by drag ropes, which were manned hj the junior 
classes ; the first and second classes acting as officers 
and cannoniers. At drill the cadets detailed to act as 
horses, would play all kinds of pranks upon him. Some- 
times a lynch pin would be taken from the axle of one of 
the gun carriages, and the wheel would of course run off, 
and the carriage, caisson or limber, as the case might be, 
break down. Again, some one would hang a small bell 
inside of the limber box, and this would tinkle merrily 
whenever the battery would move off, causing the cadets 
to break into shouts of laughter. Major Jackson would 
halt the battery and examine every piece, but could never 
discover where the bell was concealed, and not finding it, 
would order the pieces to move forward; but no sooner 
would they move off, than the bell would begin again 
its merry tinkle, causing renewed shouts of laughter. 
Again, the officers would mimic the manner in which he 
gave his commands. One movement was an especial 
favorite with him — that of bringing the battery into 
eehelon ; and whenever the command to form echelon, 
with its usual accompaniment, "right oblique, trot, 
march!" was given, the whole parade ground would ring 
with the commands of the cadet officers, uttered in the 
most rediculously drawling manner. One evening when 


this had been carried to a great excess, to the infinite 
amusement of the corps, the adjutant approached Major 
Jackson and asked him how he was pleasedVith the drill. 
Very much, sir," replied the major. Then he added, 
with a sly smile : " the officers gave very fine commands 
this afternoon." 

The artillery drills were very uninteresting to the 
corps, unless cartridges were issued. Tlien 1 have never 
seen any of the famous light batteries of either the 
federal or confederate armies excel them in proficiency 
of drill or rapidity of movements. As soon as the sound 
of the guns would fall upon his ears, a change would 
seem to come over Major Jackson. lie would grow more 
erect ; the grasp upon his sabre would tighten ; the quiet 
eyes would flash ; the large nostrals would dilate, and 
the calm grave face would glow with the proud spirit of 
the warrior. I have been frequently struck with this, 
and have often called the attention of others to it. Per- 
haps he was thinking of the scenes through which he 
had passed in that far-ofi land, with whose history his 
name is so imperishably connected. 

No one for an instant doubted Major Jackson's skill 
and talants, (indeed the proofs of them were too constant 
and striking to leave room for doubt,) but he sometimes 
made some laughable mistakes, at which none seemed 
more amused than himself. 

Upon one occasion he informed one of his classes that 
the clock in front of the Institute did not give the right 
time, and declared his intention to correct it. He accor- 
dingly led the class out upon the parade ground, and 
arranging his instruments, prepared to take Ids observa- 
tions for the purpose of ascertaining the true time. He 


finished his work about half-past twelve o'clock in the 
afternoon, and to his great astonishment discovered that 
it was nearly seven in the evening. The announcement 
of the result created a great deal of merriment, in which 
he joined. It was afterwards discovered that the instru- 
ment used was out of order, and the observations were 
necessarily incorrect. 

A cadet was once dismissed from the Institute in con- 
sequence of a charge being brought and sustained against 
him by Major Jackson. Filled with rage he vowed re- 
venge ; and arming himself, took his position on the road 
leading from the Institute into Lexington about the time 
Major Jackson usually passed by on his way to meet his 
classes, intending to shoot him whenever he should ap- 
pear. A friend heard of this, and meeting Major Jack- 
son on his way to the Institute, warned him of his danger 
and urged him to turn back. This he refused to do, say- 
ing — " Let the assassin murder me, if he will !" esteem- 
ing his duty more important than his life. When he 
reached the place where the young man was Avaiting for 
him, he turned to him and gazed calmly at him. The 
young man turned away in silence, and Major Jackson 
continued his walk. It was always with him a matter of 
unpleasantness to be compelled to bring charges against 
a cadet, and he would seek by every means in his power, 
consistent with his duty, to avoid such a necessity. When 
the cadet battery was in Charlestown during the " John 
Brown Ayar," he chanced to see in front of one of the 
hotels, a number of cadets, some of whom had been 
making very free with the mean whiskey of the place. 
Suspecting this, Major Jackson turned clown a cross street 
and avoided passing the group. Had he recognized the 


offenders, they would have been dismissed, and he wished 
to avoid seeing them in order that he might not be forced 
to report them. 

It was a fact well known among the cadets, that he 
made fewer reports than any other professor, and that 
his reports were the most difficult to have removed. The 
reason of this is obvious. He was always accessible and 
ever ready to render assistance to those who needed it. 
He would take any amount of trouble to aid his pupils in 
mastering the difficulties which presented themselves to 
them. But no one could be at all familiar with him. His 
reserve, which many persons called coldness, prevented 
this. Yet no one could withhold the admiration and 
esteem which such a nature as his could not fail to com- 
mand. A kinder, more generous and a nobler spirit was 
never placed within a human breast than that which 
glowed within the heart of Major JacksDn. 

Punctuality and promptness were among his most stri- 
king characteristics, and he never neglected an opportu- 
nity to commend the exhibition of these qualities by other 
persons. I never knew him to be late but once. It is the 
custom of the Institute to celebrate with great pomp the 
11th of November, (the anniversary of its establishment). 
Upon this day a salute is always fired at sunrise. It was 
Major Jackson's duty to superintend the salute firing. 
Upon one occasion he chanced to oversleep himself, and did 
not reach the Institute until after the adjutant of the corps 
had fired the salute. The latter officer, when he saw Major 
Jackson, expected to receive a severe reprimand for 

rmg the guns before the arrival of his superior. Major 

firiZ ^' ho 7 eVei '' at ° nce c °™*ended his promptness in 
fi»ng the salute, and explained the cause of his delay. 


General Smith, the superintendent of the Institute, in 
speaking of his punctuality, says he has known him fre- 
quently to pace the yard in front of headquarters, in the 
roughest weather, rather than be too late to attend to 
whatever business might call him there. 

In 1859, when the "John Brown raid" occurred, Ma- 
jor Jackson was ordered to Charlestown with the cadet 
battery, where he remained until after the execution. 
Those who witnessed that event will not fail to remember 
the attention he attracted as he rode out of the town in 
command of the battery on the morning of the 2nd of 
December. While there he gave more than his usual at- 
tention to the training of the cadets. Every morning he 
exercised them at the guns and in the school of the battery 
over one of the most rugged sections of country in the state. 

In 1861, when the proclamation of Abraham Lincoln 
forced the South to fty to arms in defence of her rights, 
Major Jackson was ordered by Governor Letcher to repair 
to Richmond and take command of the " Camp of instruc- 
tion," located at the " Fair grounds" near the city. On 
the 20th of April he left Lexington, and as soon as he 
reached Richmond, entered upon the discharge of his du- 
ties. He was commissioned a colonel in the state forces — 
this being the first colonel's commission issued by the 
state. As soon as he had taken charge of " Camp Lee," 
he bent every energy to accomplish the task of organi- 
zing and disciplining the large bodies of raw troops that 
were flocking in daily from all portions of the state. He 
did not remain long in this position, as his services were 
needed at another point. 

The confederate government seeing that Virginia was 
to be the theatre of war, began very early to pour its 


troops into that state. The most important places were 
occupied and fortified. Among these was the town of 
Harpers Ferry, which was built upon a 'point of land at 
the confluence of the Potomac and Shenandoah rivers. 
This being considered a place of great importance, a 
force was collected there, and Colonel Jackson assigned 
the command. On the 2d of May 1861, he took com- 
mand at Harpers Ferry and began to place the post in a 
state of defence. On the 23d of May he was relieved, 
and succeeded by General Joseph E. Johnston. " The 
force at that point then consisted of nine regiments and 
two battalions of infantry, four companies of artillery 
with sixteen pieces, without caissons', harness or horses, 
and about three hundred cavalry — they were of course 
undisciplined — several regiments without accoutrements, 
and with an entirely inadequate supply of ammunition."* 

Colonel Jackson was assigned the command of the 1st 
brigade of the army of the Shenandoah, (as the force 
under General Johnston was styled), and while at Har- 
pers Ferry, rendered great assistance to his commanding 

Having collected a large number of troops, the fede- 
ral government prepared for the opening of the campaign 
in northern Virginia. On the Potomac line they held 
the town of Alexandria, from which they threatened 
General Beauregard's army at Manassas, and a strong 
column u^der Major-general Patterson, was advancing 
through Maryland towards Harpers Ferry. 

Colonel (now major-general) Stuart was ordered by 

eneral Johnston to observe the shore of the Potomac 

* Gen. Johnston's report. 


and report the movements of Patterson's column, which 
duty he performed Avith great skill and success. Colonel 
(now lieutenant-general) A. P, Hill, with three regiments 
of Infantry, was sent to Eomney to observe, and if pos- 
sible check the movements of General McClellan, who 
was reported marching from Western Virginia towards 
the Valley for the purpose of uniting his forces with those 
of General Patterson. It was of the greatest importance 
to prevent the junction of these columns, should such a 
step be contemplated. 

Patterson was reported at or near Williamsport, and 
it was evidently his intention to cross the Potomac. 

As soon as he was convinced that the enemy were 
about to enter Virginia, General Johnston evacuated 
Harpers Perry, which he had held for the purpose of 
drawing them over the river, and moved towards Mar- 
tinsburg, upon which point the enemy were advancing. 
Pie marched rapidly, but when he reached the neighbor- 
hood of Martinsburg, found that the enemy, having been 
informed of his approach, had retired across the Poto- 
mac. General Johnston now marched to Winchester. 
On the 20th of June he sent Colonel Jackson, with his 
brigade, to the neighborhood of Martinsburg to watch 
the enemy and check their advance. While there, Colo- 
nel Jackson, in obedience to orders, entered the town of 
Martinsburg and destroyed such of the rolling stock and 
other property of the Baltimore and Ohio railroad as he 
could not bring away. " A number of locomotives and 
cars were successfully carried to Winchester, but more 
than forty of the largest and finest engines, with others, 
old and disabled, and nearly three hundred box and plat- 
form and iron ears were destroyed." The road was torn 


up and the bridges destroyed for some distance ; thus in- 
flicting a serious loss upon the enemy. 

On Thursday, 2d July 1861, the federal army under 
General Patterson, crossed the Potomac a second time, 
at Williamsport, and moved towards Martinsburg. As 
soon as he was informed of this, Colonel Jackson broke 
up his camp, which was located about two miles north of 
the town, and advanced to meet the enemy. Having 
proceeded a short distance he halted his brigade, and de- 
taching a part of the 5th Virginia regiment, (Harper's), 
a small portion of Col. Stuart's cavalry, and one gun 
from Pendleton's battery, in all about 380 men, moved 
forward towards the Potomac to reconnoitre the enemy's 
position and ascertain his strength. Arriving near Fall- 
ing Waters, he found the federal troops drawn up in line 
of battle. This force consisted of Patterson's advanced 
brigade under Brigadier-general George Cadwallader, 
and numbered between three and five thousand men, with 
a fine battery of field artillery. The action was opened 
by a dash of two companies of Stuart's cavalry upon that 
portion of the enemy's forces which was the first to ar- 
rive upon the field. As soon as he came up with the main 
body, Colonel Jackson, skilfully taking a position which 
enabled him to conceal the smallness of his force, at once 
engaged the enemy. The battle began at 9 o'clock in 
the morning and was fought with great vigor for an hour, 
when the firing grew more gradual, and continued so until 
the close of the engagement. About 12 o'clock, Colonel 
Jackson, finding that the enemy were making great efforts 
to outflank him, which the superiority of their force 
would enable them to do, drew off his men and retired to 
his main body ; the enemy making no attempt at a pur- 


suit. Having rejoined his main column, he continued his 
retreat through Martinsburg and halted at a little place 
called Darkesville, about four miles south of the town, 
where he was joined by General Johnston, who had ad- 
vanced to his support with the army of the Shenandoah. 

In this affair, Colonel Jackson lost two killed and ten 
wounded. The enemy lost a large number killed and 
wounded, and forty-five taken prisoners. This has al- 
ways been justly regarded as one of the most brilliant 
exploits of the war. With a mere handful of men, Colo- 
nel Jackson had, for three hours, held in check a force of 
ten times his own numbers, had repulsed every attack 
made upon him, had inflicted a severe loss upon the enemy 
and had impressed them so deeply with a sense of his 
skill and strength, that they had allowed him to retire 
unmolested. It was a severe blow for an invading army, 
composed entirely of raw troops, to meet with such a de- 
cided check from so small a force upon their first entrance 
into a hostile country. Surely it must have impressed 
them most deeply with the conviction that the task of 
conquering the South would be anything but child's 

General Patter3on telegraphed to Washington that his 
army had "routed and put to flight ten thousand of the 
rebels." The defeat, however, was too plain to be smoth- 
ered over by such a bare-faced lie, and a telegram soon 
afterwards appeared in a Louisville paper, which stated 
that the federals had " evidently nothing encouraging to 

General Johnston waited four days for General Patter- 
son, who had occupied Martinsburg, to come out and give 
him battle; but that officer declined doing so. The les- 


son taught him at Falling W aters was not without its 
effect. He was in no hurry to meet the men who had 
given him such a decided check as that which he had ex- 
perienced on the 2d of July. Finding that General Pat- 
terson would not come out and fight him, General John- 
ston fell back to Winchester. 

A few days after the arrival of the army at Winches- 
ter, Colonel Jackson received the commission of briga- 
dier-general in the provisional army of the Confederate 
States. This promotion was intended as a reward for his 
valuable services during the war. but especially his con- 
duct at Falling Waters. The promotion was richly mer- 
ited and gave great satisfaction to the arm;/. 

The 1st brigade of the army of the Shenandoah, com- 
manded by General Jackson, consisted of the 2d, 4th, 5th, 
27th and 33d Virginia regiments, and Pendleton's light 
battery. A finer body of troops never marched to battle. 
They were proud of their gallant commander, and it was 
not long before this feeling of pride was changed to one 
of almost idolatry. General Jackson was kind to and 
careful of his men, never neglecting anything that could 
contribute to their comfort. He at all times preserved 
the most rigid discipline among them, and this was in a 
great measure the cause of their wonderful success. 

One of his most striking characteristics was his great 
attention to details. He nedccted nothing that could 
contribute to the comfort or safety of his men or the of his undertakings. On the march he was gen- 
erally near his wagon trains, superintending in person 
their movements. The following incident is related of 
him : Upon one occasion, one of his wagons stuck fast 
in a. mud hole; the wagoners were cursing and belaboring 


the mules without making any effort to prize the wagon 
out of the hole. At this moment General Jackson hap- 
pened to ride up. Seeing the difficulty he at once dis- 
mounted from his old sorrel, and taking a rail from a 
neighboring fence, went to work in good earnest to place 
the wagon on dry ground. Instantly the wagoners ceased 
cursing and put their shoulders to the wheel to help the 
general. In a short time the wagon was safely landed on 
solid ground, and then General Jackson superintended 
the filling up of the hole in order to allow the rest of 
the train to pass by in safety. 

He fully appreciated the power of his example, and 
never lost sight of the importance of giving his personal 
attention to the minutest detail. 

On the 18th of July, General Johnston began his cele- 
brated march from Winchester to Manassas. Jackson's 
brigade led the advance, and upon arriving at Piedmont 
on the Manassas gap railroad, was embarked on the cars, 
and, together with Bee s and Bartow's bi'igades, sent 
forward to Manassas. 

General Jackson reached Manassas on the 20th of 
July, and was ordered to station himself on the lines of 
Bull run, in the rear of Blackburn's and Mitchell's fords,, 
in order that he might be enabled to support either Gene- 
ral Longstreet at the former, or General Bonham at the 
latter point, as the occasion might require.* 

* The Rev. Dr. Moore, of Richmond, in a sermon iu memory of Jack- 
son, narrates the following incident: t 

"Previous to the first battle of Manassas, when the troops under 
Stonewall Jackson had made a forced March, on halting at night 
the}' fell on the ground exhausted and faint. The hour arrived for 
setting the watch for the night. The officer of the day went to the 


The enemy having determined to endeavor to turn the 
left flank of the confederate army, began their attack at 
half-past five o'clock on the morning of the 21st July, 
upon Colonel Evans position at the " Stone bridge." A 
few hours later, Colonel Evans being satisfied as to their 
intentions, moved farther to the left, and changing his 
front, awaited their attack. They soon appeared, and 
the battle began at quarter to ten o'clock. Evans' little 
band, though assailed by overwhelming numbers, held 
their ground firmly until the arrival of General Bee with 
reinforcements. The battle continued to rage. In about 
an hour General Bee, in order to avoid being outflanked 
by the enemy, who were pressing upon him from alj 
points, fell back towards the Henry house. 

About seven o'clock in the morning, General Jackson 
was ordered to move with his brigade, together with Im- 
boden's and five pieces of Walton's batteries, and guard 
the intervals between Bonham's left and Cocke's right, 
and to support either in case of need — the character and 
topographical features of the country being shown to him 
by Captain Harris of the engineers. Shortly afterwards 
Imboden s guns were sent forward with General Bee to 
the assistance of Colonel Evans. Soon after this, Gene- 
ral Jackson moved to the support of General Bee, who 
was sorely pressed by the dense masses of the enemy 

general's tent and said ' General, the men are all wearied, and there 
is not one but is asleep. Shall I wake them '?' ' No,' said the noble 
Jackson^ 'let them sleep, and I will watch the camp to-night.' And 
all night long he rode lound that lonelj- camp, the one lone sentinel 
for that brave, but weary and silent body of Virginia heroes. And 
when glorious morning broke, the soldiers awoke fresh and ready for 
action, all unconscious of the noble vigils kept over their slumbers.' 7 


which were surging heavily upon him. He came into 
action and formed his brigade in line of battle, just as 
the, torn and shattered fragments of Bee's forces, then 
in great danger of being routed, reached the plateau on 
which the Henry house is situated. The enemy finding 
that the steady front which the gallant " first brigade' 
presented could not be broken, paused in their pursuit. 
Order was restored along the lines, and soon Generals 
Beauregard and Johnston arrived upon the field. While 
the army was being reorganized, and the new line of bat- 
tle arranged, the artillery of the two armies became hotly 
engaged. This brief rest given to the infantry, afforded 
the confederates an opportunity to reform their lines, 
and, beyond a doubt, saved the victory then trembling in 
the balance. It was due to the promptness of General 
Jackson in moving forward from the position to which he 
had been assigned early in the morning, and bringing his 
brigade into position with such celerity and skill, thereby 
checking the pursuit. 

About two o'clpck in the afternoon, General Beaure- 
gard ordered the whole of the right of his line (except 
the reserves) to advance and drive the enemy from the 
plateau. This was done with spirit. "At the same time 
Jackson's brigade pierced the enemy's centre with the 
determination of veterans and the spirit of men who fight 
for a sacred cause, but it suffered severely."* 

The enemy fell back ; but soon receiving large bodies 
of fresh troops, pressed forward again and recovered their 
lost ground. About three o'clock in the afternoon, Gen- 
eral Beauregard, having received a small reinforcement, 

* General Beauregard's report. 


resolved to advance his lines and drive the enemy from 
the plateau, and accordingly orders were issued for the 
execution of this movement. 

The army had suffered terribly— particularly the bri- 
gade of General Bee. In that brigade every field officer 
and nearly all of the company officers had fallen, and the 
heroic regiments which composed it were on the point of 
beinp- overwhelmed. Just at this moment the order wa3 
given to charge the enemy's lines. 

Riding up to General Jackson, who sat on his horse 
calm and unmoved, though severely wounded in the hand. 
General Bee exclaimed in a voice of anguish : 

" General, they are beating us back !" 

General Jackson glanced around him for a moment. 
His large eyes flashed and his features shone with a glo- 
rious light. Turning to General Bee, he said calmly : 

" Sir, we'll give them the bayonet." 

Then placing himself at the head of his brigade, he 
thundered : 

" Forward !" 

The men sprang forward with a cheer, and swept like 
a whirlwind upon the startled foe. 

Hastening back to his men, General Bee cried enthu- 
siastically, as he pointed to Jackson : 

"Look yonder! There is Jackson standing like a 
stone wall ! Let us determine to die here, and we will 
conquer. Follow me!" 

Then placing himself at the head of his shattered col- 
umn, General Bee led it forward, (animated by the glori- 
ous example of General Jackson and his men), in that 
noble charge, the success of which was purchased with 
his pure life. The charge of Jackson's men was terrific. 


The enemy were swept before them like chaff before a 
whirlwind. Nothing could resist its impetuosity. The 
men seemed to have caught the dauntless spirit and de- 
termined will of their heroic commander, and nothing 
could stay them in their onward course. The 27th Vir- 
ginia regiment, in this brilliant charge, captured the 
greater portion of Rickett's and Griffin's batteries, and 
the flag of the 1st Michigan regiment.* The name won 
that day by the brigade and its general, is immortal. 

Just as the final assault, which ended in their rout, was 
being made upon the enemy's lines, General Jackson was 
informed that Keyes' brigade of Tyler'3 division of the 
federal army was approaching for the purpose of out- 
flanking the confederate forces. He at once ordered Al- 
burtis' battery (supported by a small force of infantry) to 
a point overlooking the road by which the enemy were ad- 
vancing. A few shots from this battery and Latham's 
guns, which had taken position a little to the left, forced 
the federals to retire. 

In the final attack upon the enemy's lines, the brigade 
of General Jackson greatly distinguished itself, and 
drove the enemy from the field. The victory gained by 
the confederate army was complete, and no one contribu- 
ted more largely to it than General Jackson. 

The wound in the hand, he received in the early part 
of the day. It was severe and painful ; but he refused 
to leave the field, and continued in command of his bri- 
gade until the close of the action.! 

* Gen. Beauregard's report. 

-j- Captain Cooke in his biography of General Jackson, relates the 
following incident, as .happening at this battk' : 

" While Jackson s wound was b'eiug dressed, some orre said, Here 



The appeal of General Bee to his troops became widely 
spread throughout the army and the South. The troops, 
as a mark of their high esteem and admiration for Gene- 
ral Jackson, bestowed upon him the flattering title of 
" Stonewall Jackson." This name, so eminently char- 
acteristic of him, was readily adopted by all, and became 
so common that he was very rarely spoken of by any 
other. So universal did the habit become, that many 
persons devoutly believed he had no other name ; and 
this gave rise to many amusing blunders. It is said that 
upon one occasion General Jackson received a letter ad- 
dressed to " General Stone W Jackson.' 1 

The valuable services of General Jackson were ac- 
knowledged by General Johnston in his report of the 
battle ; and it is there stated that the victory was due, in 
a great degree, to his skill and bravery. General Beau- 
regard speaks of him as follows : " The conduct of Gen- 
eral Jackson also requires mention as eminently that of 
an able, fearless soldier and sagacious commander — one 
fit to lead his efficient brigade; his prompt, timely arrival 
before the plateau of the Henry house, and his judicious 
disposition of his troops, contributed much to the success 
of the day. Although painfully wounded in the hand, 
he remained on the field to the end of the battle, render- 
ing valuable assistance." 

The brilliant services of General Jackson procured for 
him the commission of major-general. 

In the fall of 1861 the confederate army in Virginia 

comes the president !' He threw aside the surgeons, rose suddenly to 
his feet, and whirling his old cap around his head, cried, with the 
fire of battle in his eyes : 'Hurrah for the president! Give me ten 
thousand men, and I'll be in Washington to-night.' " 


■was reorganized. The army of the Potomac, consisting 
of the forces lying along the Potomac, south of Harpers 
Ferry, was organized into several corps d'armee — the 
troops in the neighborhood of Centreville and Manassas 
being under the immediate command of General Beaure- 
gard. The troops at Winchester, those in the Valley of 
Virginia, and the commands of Generals Loring and 
Hemy R. Jackson in Western Virginia, were organized 
into a separate army, which was styled the " Army of 
the Monongahela." The t-upreme command of the armies 
of the Potomac and the Monongahela was conferred upon 
General Joseph E. Johnston. 

Having received his commission as major-general, Gen- 
eraj Jackson was ordered to proceed to Winchester and 
take command of the army of the Monongahela. This 
he at once prepared to do. Before leaving the army of 
the Potomac, he took an affecting farewell of the troops 
with whom he had been so long and so intimately con- 
nected. On the morning of the 4th of October 1861, 
the gallant " Stonewall brigade" was drawn up near its 
encampment at Centreville. All of the regiments except 
the 5th (which was on picket) were present. Drawn up 
in close columns, the officers and soldiers who had on the 
immortal 21st July won such glory under the guidance of 
their gallant general, stood with sad hearts and sorrowful 
countenances to bid him farewell; while thousands of 
troops from other portions of the army stood by in re- 
spectful silence. In a short time General Jackson, ac- 
companied by his staff, left his quarters and rode slowly 
towards the brigade. He was received by them in silence. 
Until this moment, his appearance had never failed to 
draw r from his men the most enthusiastic cheers. But 


now not a sound was heard : a deep and painful silence 
reigned over every thing : every heart was full ; and 
this silence was more elequent than cheers could have 

As they reached the centre of the line the staff halted, 
and the general rode forward slowly to within a few paces 
of his men. Then pausing, he gazed for a moment wist- 
fully up and down the line. Beneath the calm, quiet ex- 
terior of the hero, there throbbed a warm and generous 
heart, and this parting filled it with inexpressible pain. 
After a silence of a few moments, General Jackson 
turned to his men and addressed them in the following 
brief, but expressive language : 

" Officers and soldiers of the first brigade: I am<oot 
here to make a speech, but simply to say farewell. I 
first met you at Harpers Ferry, in the commencement of 
this war, and I cannot take leave of you without giving 
expression to my admiration for your conduct from that 
day to this, whether on the march, 'the bivouac, the tented 
field, or the bloody plains of Manassaj, where you gained 
the well deserved reputation of having decided the fate 
of the battle. Throughout the broad extent of country 
over which you have marched, by your respect for the 
rights and propertyof citizens, you have shown that you 
were soldiers not only to defend, but able and willing 
both to defend and protect. You have already gained a 
brilliant and deservedly high reputation throughout the 
army and the whole Confederacy, and I trust, in the fu- 
ture, by your own deeds on the field, and by the assist- 
ance of the same kind Providence who has heretofore 
tavored our cause, you will ga i n more victories and add 
additional lustre to the reputation you now enjoy. You 


have already gained a proud position in the future history 
of this,* our second war of independence. I shall look 
with great anxiety to your future movements, and I trust 
whenever I shall hear of the first brigade on the field of 
battle, it will be of still nobler deeds achieved and a 
higher reputation won." 

Here he paused and glanced proudly around him. 
Then raising himself in his stirrups and throwing the 
bridle on his horse's neck, exclaimed in a voice of such 
deep feeling, that it thrilled through every heart in the 
brigade : 

"In the army of the Shenandoah you were the first 
brigade ; in the army of the Potomac you were the first 
brigade ; in the second corps of this army you are the first 
brigade ; you are the first brigade in the affections of your 
general, and I hope by your future deeds and bearing, you 
will be handed down to posterity as the first brigade in 
this, our second war of independence. Farewell !■" 

For a moment there was a pause, and then arose cheer 
after cheer, so wild and thrilling, that the very heavens 
rang with them. Unable to stand such affecting evi- 
dences of attachment, General Jackson hastily waved 
farewell to his men, and gathering his reins, rode rapidly 

* While the brigade entertained such a high opinion of 
General Jackson, his opinion of the heroes who composed 
it was equally exalted. I cannot illustrate this better 
than by relating the following incident : 

Soon after the succession of General Garnett to the 
command of the Stonewall brigade, he was ordered by 
General Jackson to execute some movement that required 
a long march and great rapidity. The troops were al- 


ready much fatigued by their extraordinary marches, and 
knowing this, General Garnett remarked that ha feared 
it would be impossible to execute his orders. 

"General Garnett," said General Jackson, interrupt- 
ing him, " I once commanded the first brigade, and I 
never found anything impossible with them !" 

It is scarcely worth while to add, the movement was 

General Jackson at once repaired to VV inchester to or- 
ganize his army and arrange the affairs of his department. 
In addition to the troops sent him from the army of the 
Potomac, (among which was his old brigade), the com- 
mand of General Loring was ordered from Western Vir- 
ginia to join him. 

General Jackson was not popular at- first with the 
troops of General Loring. They were devotedly at- 
tached to their commander, and were not willing that he 
should serve under General Jackson ; and it was not^until 
they had passed through the glorious campaign in the 
Valley, that they were perfectly satisfied with their new 
general. After that, their feelings seemed to undergo a 
complete change, and not even the troops of the old 
" Stonewall brigade" were more devoted to him than 
were " Loring's men." 

While engaged in preparing his forces for active ope-' 
rations, General Jackson, on the 17th December, de- 
stroyed Dam No. 5, on the Chesapeake and Ohio canal; 
thus disabling the canal and depriving the city of Wash- 
ington of the supplies which were sent to it by that 

About the close of the year 1861, General Jackson's 
army numbered ten thousand men. The enemy had col- 


Jected forces at the towns of Bath in Morgan county, and 
Romney in Hampshire county, from which points they 
committed numerous depredations upon the surrounding 
country. General Jackson resolved to drive them from 
these places and free the country from their presence. 

On the 1st of January 1862, he left Winchester with 
his forces and took the road to Romney. Having pro- 
ceeded a short distance, he wheeled to the right and 
marched towards Morgan county- The weather was very 
warm and the roads dusty on the first day ; the second 
day was very cold, and as the road was not in good order, 
the wagons were unable to keep up with the army, and 
the men were forced that night to lie out upon the ground 
without then* coverings or any thing to eat. On the 
morning of the third day, the wagons came up, and the 
troops were allowed a short time to cook provisions and 
partake of food. As soon as this was done, they set out 
again, suffering very much from the intense cold. The 
night was passed most uncomfortably, and on the next 
morning it began to snow rapidly. The troops suffered 
greatly from this, but pushed on cheerfully. That af- 
ternoon they came within four miles of Bath. Here 
the advanced brigade encountered a federal force, and 
after a sharp skirmish, forced it to retire into the town. 
The army encamped for the night just outside of Bath. 
Snow, rain and hail fell during the whole night, and the 
troops were forced to endure this without blankets or cov- 
erings of any kind; but they were so much fatigued by 
their long marches of the past few clays, that they sank 
down upon the wet ground and slept in spite of the hard- 
ships to which they were subjected. The roads had be- 
come almost impassable, owing to the sleet and ice, and 


It was with great difficulty that the horses could stand 
upon their feet. It was late on Saturday morning (Jan- 
uary 5th) before the wagons came up and the men could 
procure food. As soon as the army had breakfasted, the 
order was given to advance towards Bath. 

The artillery, moving in advance, opened a heavy fire 
upon the yankces, and the infantry, hurrying forward to 
charge the breastworks which had been erected for the 
defence of the town, the enemy spiked their guns and re- 
treated towards the Potomac. A portion of the militia 
which accompanied General Jackson's army, were ordered 
to occupy a point in the rear of the town and thus cut off 
the enemy's retreat ; but before they could reach it, the 
federals passed it, and retreated across the river to Han- 
cock, in Maryland. They were pursued by the cavalry 
to the Potomac, where the confederate* fell into an am- 
bush and had to fall back. A piece of artillery was then 
ordered forward, and the woods in which the enemy lay 
concealed were shelled until night. 

At night the army fell back a short distance. Two 
regiments of infantry and a battery were ordered to re- 
main in the road all night to watch the enemy. They 
had no fires, and their sufferings were intense. Numbers, 
overcome by the cold, sank down in their, places, and had 
to be carried to the roar. The soles of the shoes of the 
men, in many instances, froze to the ground. Yet, not- 
withstanding all they endured, not a murmur of complaint 
was heard. 

On Sunday morning (January 6th) the army arrived 
opposite the town of Hancock, Maryland. Here the 
enemy bad collected a strong force, and presented a hos- 
tile appearance. General Jaehson sent Colonel Ashby, 


with a flag of truce, to the authorities of the town, giving 
them two hours to remove the women and children from 
the place, and notifying them of his intention to cannon- 
ade it and drive the enemy from it. At the expiration 
of the appointed time, General Jackson opened his fire 
upon the enemies batteries, to which they replied feebly. 
The fire continued rapidly for about an hour, and then 
ceased on both sides for the day. Not wishing to destroy 
the town, General Jackson directed his fire only at those 
portions occupied by the enemy. 

On the next morning the enemy, who had been rein* 
forced during the night, opened a furious fire upon the 
confederates, who did not reply to them, but busied them^ 
selves with removing the stores which the enemy had 

While this was going on opposite Hancock, Colonel 
Rust, with two regiments and a battery, was ordered to 
proceed up the road and destroy the bridge over the 
Cacapon river. In his march to that point he was am- 
buscadedj but succeeded in driving the enemy out of their 
place of concealment, and then burnt the bridge and de- 
stroyed a considerable portion of the road. 

On Thursday morning (January 8th,) the army fell 
back from before Hancock. Having cleared this portion 
of the country, General Jackson resolved to drive the 
enemy out of Eomney, and immediately began his march 
to that place. The enemy had at Roinney a force of 
about twelve thousand men under Brigadier-general Kel- 
ly. Hearing that General Jackson was approaching, 
General Kelley evacuated the town on the 11th of Janu- 
ary, and retreated. General Jackson pressed on and 
took Tiossessiou of the place. 


It was the original intention of General Kelly, "when 
lie was informed of General Jackson's approach, to defend 
Romnev, and he issued orders to that effect. But his 
troops became seized with a violent panic as soon as they 
heard of the advance of the terrible " Stonewall ;" and 
General Kelly, finding it impossible to make them fight, 
was forced to retreat. 

The federals abandoned a large amount of stores of 
various kinds, and left behind them all the official papers 
of their adjutant-general. From these papers much valu- 
able information was gained. 

Having driven the enemy before him at all points? 
General Jackson, leaving General Loring at Romney, 
returned to Winchester, (taking with him the Stonewall 
brigade), to guard his communications and watch the 
growing force of the enemy at Harpers Ferry. General 
Loring held Romney until the 6th of February, when he 
evacuated it under orders from General Jackson, and re- 
turned to Winchester. 

The terrible sufferings endufed by the troops in this 
expedition, caused many persons to regard the course 
pursued by General Jackson as unnecessary, and he was, 
for a time, the object of much censure. But the results 
of the expedition, and the facts which time has revealed, 
prove incontestibly that it was rendered necessary by the 
circumstances in which he was placed. The Baltimore 
and Ohio railroad was the great connecting link between 
the East and the West ; and the United States authori- 
ties were using it to transport troops to the necessary 
points. The destruction of a portion of this road, inclu- 
ding an important bridge, caused the enemy to adopt a 
more circuitous route through Pennsylvania, thereby put- 


ting them to serious inconvenience. Two large and im- 
portant counties were delivered for a time from the thral- 
dom of the enemy and the demoralizing influence of their 
armies ; rescued from their plundering and destructive 
acts of barbarity and villainy, and confidence restored in 
the power and willingness of the government to give pro- 
tection to its citizens. A severe loss was inflicted upon 
the enemy, a large amount of stores of various kinds 
captured, and the federal troops greatly demoralized, for 
the time, by the sudden and successful march of the con- 
federate army. 

It is true the troops of General Jackson suffered terri- 
bly — that the hospital reports showed the fearful conse- 
quences of the exposure and hardships which had been 
undergone ; but this could not be avoided : and a calm 
consideration of the matter will not fail to convince any 
one that the expedition was a necessity, and bravely and 
skilfully carried out, reflecting the highest credit upon 
the gallant commander. 

Nothing can better illustrate the perfect confidence re- 
posed in General Jackson by his troops, than the patient 
and cheerful manner with which they bore the most trying 
hardships to which they were exposed. Some of them 
were without shoes ; many of them but poorly clad ; and 
nearly all without overcoats, blankets or tents : and yet 
they never murmured. They bore everything with the 
greatest cheerfulness. It was enough for them to know 
that "Old Jack" thought the movement necessary. It 
must not be supposed that General Jackson fared much 
better than his men. He experienced all of the hard- 
ships to which they were subjected. Fatigue, cold, ex- 
posure and hunger he shared with them. Wrapping him- 


self up in his blanket, be would throw himself down upon 
the ground and sleep ag soundly as if lying on a bed of 
down. All that he could do to alleviate the sufferings of 
the men, he did most gladly. Such heroism as was ex- 
hibited by both officers and men in this fearful march, 
has never been surpassed in any age of the world. 

Having returned to Winchester, General Jackson al- 
lowed his army a brief period for rest. Sickness and 
the process of reorganization diminished its strength con- 

It was General Jackson's original intention to hold both 
Roinney and Winchester, which positions would, he 
thought, enable him to defend the Valley of A r irginia. 
By establishing a telegraph between Iiomney and Win- 
chester, he would have the means of communicating 
promptly with General Loring at the former place. He 
was unwilling to allow the enemy to open the campaign, 
and wes anxious to assume offensive operations as soon 
as possible. He saw clearly the evils that would result 
from allowing the federal troops, then organizing for the 
invasion of the Valley, time to complete their arrange- 
ments, and he was anxious to strike at once. In a letter 
written on March 3d, he states his plan as follows : • 

' ; My plan is to put on as bold a front as possible, and 
to use every means in my- power to prevent his advance, 
whilst our reorganization is going on. What I desire, is 
to hold the country, as far as practicable, until we are in 
a condition to advance ; and then, with God's blessing, 
let us make thorough work of it. * * * Banks, 
who commands about 35,000 men, has his headquarters 
at Charlestown ; Kelly, who has succeeded Lander, has 
probably 11,000 with his headquarters near Paw Paw. 


Thus you sec two generals, whose united force is near 
46,000, of troops already organized for three years or 
the war, opposed to our little force here. But I do not 
feel discouraged. Let me have what force you can. * 
* * * I am delighted to hear you say that Vir- 
ginia is resolved to concentrate all her resources, if ne- 
cessary, to the defence of herself. Now we may look for 
war in earnest. * * * * * * I have 
only to say this — that if this Valley is lost, Virginia is 

Thus, it will be seen, he regarded a speedy opening of 
an aggressive campaign by his forces, as the only hope of 
success in the Valley. He saw clearly that if the fede- 
rals were allowed time to concentrate their forces and 
perfect their plans, his little army would be forced to 
abandon a large portion of the Valley and retire towards 
the mountains. The wisdom of his views must be evident 
to all reflecting minds. Unfortunately the war depart- 
ment did not agree with General Jackson, and its sanc- 
tion was refused to his plans and the desired reinforce- 
ments withheld. General Jackson was ordered to with- 
draw General Loring from Romney, to go into camp at 
Winchester and watch the enemy. 

Although exceedingly mortified by the rejection of his 
plans by the government, General Jackson, with the 
promptness of a true soldier, executed the orders of the 
war department and patiently awaited the movements of 
the enemy. 

The contrast between the views of the government and 
the plans of General Jackson is striking. He was al- 
ways in favor of prompt, vigorous, aggressive movements ; 
while the officials were content to await the development 


of the enemy's plans, thus allowing him. all the time he 
desired for the perfection of his designs. It was General 
Jackson's rule to strike promptly and boldly wherever 
the enemy showed a vulnerable point. He did not wait 
for opportunities : he made them. His great idea in all 
of his operations was to "press right on," and drive the 
enemy before him. He was in favor of an advance upon 
Washington at the first battle of Manassas : he wanted 
to attack McClellan at Harrison's landing ; and at Fre- 
dericksburg urged that Burnside should be driven out of 
the town and into the Rappahannock, and the last order 
he ever gave was to "tell A. P Hill to press right on." 

If he failed in striking one blow, he saw but one course 
to pursue — to strike another, and to keep on striking 
until success crowned his efforts. He was always averse 
to any plan that gave the enemy a breathing spell. 

He was not a rash man. His plans were the results of 
mature and deliberate calculation. Every argument for 
or against a measure was carefully weighed, and nothing 
was undertaken hastily. No general ever paid greater 
attention to his communications, or took more pains to 
leave open a way of escape for his army in case of fail- 
ure. All of his measures were bold and characteristic of 
his strong and unconquerable will. He seemed to per- 
ceive intuitively the chief danger against which he had to 
contend, and instead of scattering his efforts upon a score 
of minor points, he bent all of them against the grand 
central object, and never paused until he overcame it. 
His strength of will was prodigious, and the stubborn 
tenacity with which he held his ground on all occasions, 
one of his most remarkable traits. 

The time had not arrived when the government was to 


appreciate the true character of the man to whose care 
had been entrusted the fortunes of the Valley. He was 
thought by those in authority at Richmond a hairbrained, 
rash dreamer, who aimed at impossibilities and who should 
be watched and checked as much as possible. The au- 
thorities seemed to be continually afraid that Jackson 
would do something, or get into some trouble, and were 
not willing to sanction hia plan for the defence of the 
Valley. Orders were sent him to remain quiet at Win- 
chester, and the bold heart and fertile brain of the £reat 
soldier were forced for the time to throw aside all plans 
and wishes, and content themselves with awaiting the 
opening of the campaign by the enemy. 

On the 26 th of February, the federal army, some 
35,000 strong, under Major-general Banks, crossed the 
Potomac at Harper's Ferry, and on the same evening the 
enemy's cavalry occupied Charlestown in Jefferson county. 
This column was destined for the invasion of the Valley 
and the annihilation of the little army under General 
Jackson. General Jackson's force had been greatly re- 
duced, and now numbered scarcely four thousand men. 
The army of the Potomac was falling back from Centre- 
viile to the Rappahannock and Eapidan, and General 
Jackson had no assurance of receiving assistance from 
any point. The column under General Banks was already 
nearly four times as large as his own, while the forces of 
General Kelly were within three days march of Banks, 
and the federal army in Western Virginia could, when- 
ever it was found necessary, move into the Valley to the 
support of the army there. The position of General 
Jftckson was very trying, and for awhile it seemed that 
his gallant little army would be overwhelmed by the im~ 


mense force that was moving against it. All over the 
country the hope was expressed that the government 
would order General Jackson east of the mountains, and 
thus prevent his being sacrificed in (what was then thought) 
the vain attempt to defend the Valley. But General 
Jackson himself was not so despondent. Believing that 
the just God in whom he trusted did not always give 
"the battle to the strong alone ; hut to the vigilant, the 
active, the brave," he calmly awaited the enemy's ad- 

" Though the troops under my command are inade- 
quate to the defence of this district," he wrote in one of 
his letters, " yet we must look on the bright side, trusting 
that a kind Providence will continue to give its protec- 
tion to this fair portion of our Valley." 

Pausing a few -days at Charlestown, General Banks 
marched to Martinsburg, which place he occupied on the 
3d of March. 

Having completed his arrangements, he advanced upon 
Winchester by the road leading from Martinsburg and 
also that from Charlestown. On the 11th of March 
these two columns were united at a point six miles from 
Winchester. About two o'clock in the afternoon of the 
bame day, the enemy attacked the picket of Ashby's cav- 
alry, four miles from the town. A small reinforcement was 
hurried to the assistance of the cavalry, but was forced to 
retire before the enemy. The whole confederate force 
was now thrown forward and held in readiness to engage 
the federals if they should continue to advance. This, 
however, General Banks declined doing, and nothing fur- 
ther occurred during the clay. Late in the day, General 
Jackson received an order from the government requiring 


him to evacuate Winchester and retire up the Valley. 
With great regret, he drew off his troops and retired into 
the town. He at once commenced to remove the stores, 
baggage and other public property. This was success- 
fully accomplished, and not one dollar's worth of the pub- 
lic property fell, into the hands of the enemy.* At last 
all was ready, and General Jackson, leaving Colonel 
Ashby to cover his retreat with the cavalry, slowly re- 
tired from the town. He bivouaced that night about four 
miles from Winchester. 

At eight o'clock the next morning, eight thousand fede- 
ral troops marched into Winchester and took possession of 
the town. Colonel Ashby remained, sitting on his horse, 
in the Main street, until the head of the enemy's column 
came within a short distance of him, and then rode out 
of the town and rejoined his command. In the after- 
noon a federal column under General Shields advanced 
towards Newtown. They were met and driven back to 
Winchester by Colonel Ashby's command. During the 
same day, General Jackson continued his retreat until he 
reached Cedar creek, on the Valley turnpike, sixteen 
miles from Winchester, and two from Strasburg. Shortly 
afterwards he continued to retire up the Valley until he 
reached Mount Jackson, a strong position in Shenandoah 

A detachment of the enemy followed General Jackson 
in his retreat up the Valley as far as Strasburg, (the 
main column, however, resting in the neighborhood of 

* It is a striking fact that General Jackson never abandoned to the 
enemy one thousand dollars worth of public property while he was 
in the army, and he was forced to destroy very little ; his measures 
for its preservation being, generally, successful. 



Winchester), the pursuing force being constantly held at 
a respectful distance by Ashby's cavalry and Chew's bat- 
tery, which constituted the confederate rear gauird. 

By the time he reached Mount Jackson, General Jack- 
son's forces were reduced to scarcely more than three 
thousand men. The little army now consisted of the fol- 
lowing greatly reduced commands : Ashby's cavalry and 
Chew's battery, (which had covered the retreat and were 
now lying between the enemy and Mount Jackson) ; Col. 
Eulkerson's brigade, (composed of the 23d and 37th Vir- 
ginia regiments and Skumaker's battery) ; Brigadier-gene- 
ral Garnett's brigade, (the old "Stonewall brigade," com- 
posed of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27 th and 33rd Virginia regi- 
ments, and McLaughlin's, Carpenter's and Waters' bat- 
teries) ; and Col. Burks' brigade, (composed of the 21st, 
42nd and 48th Virginia regiments ; the 1st battalion of 
Virginia regulars and Marye's battery.) 

With this small force, which was undergoing the pro- 
cess of reorganization, General Jackson was expected to 
defend the Valley of Virginia against the' overwhelming 
hordes of the North. He did not shrink from the re- 
sponsibility, but put forth all his energies to perform the 
part assigned him. 

On the 21st of" March he received a dispatch from Col- 
onel Ashby, informing him that the enemy had evacuated 
Strasburg, and were retreating towards Winchester. At 
the same time he learned that General Sedgwick, with a 
force of 15,000 federal troops, had left the Valley and 
was marching eastward for the purpose of assailing Gen- 
eral Johnston, who was falling back from Centreville to- 
wards the Rappahannock. The main column of yankees 
left in the Valley, he was informed, was quite small, and 


was advancing leisurely up the Valley, commanded by 
General Shields.. 

As soon as General Jackson received this information, 
his resolution was taken. He determined to wheel about, 
fall suddenly upon Shields' column and defeat it. He 
would thus accomplish two results, both of which would 
be exceedingly beneficial to the South. Pie would inflict 
a severe blow upon Shields, and force Sedgwick to return 
to the assistance of his friends in the Valley, thus re- 
lieving General Johnston of the danger that threatened 

General Jackson's troops had just reached Mount Jack- 
son, and were greatly fatigued by their long marches. 
But there was no rest in store for them then. As soon 
as he received information of the enemy's movements, 
General Jackson wheeled his forces about and marched 
rapidly down the Valley. He left his camp on Saturday 
the 22d of March, and bivouaced that night in the neigh- 
borhood of Btrasburg, having marched a distance of 
twenty-six miles that day. He moved so rapidly that 
only 2,700 of his men were able to keep up with him. 

On the same evening, Colonel Ashby's cavalry had a 
spirited engagement with the enemy, in which the federal 
commander, General Shields, was severely wounded. 

The next day, (Sunday 23d of March), General Jackson 
moved forward, and about ten o'clock arrived in front of 
Kerns town, a place about two miles south of Winchester. 

Early on the same morning, General Banks, who was 
still in Winchester, was informed by General Shields that 
the only confederate force in, h^fwtft '%»$'&. small, bddy 
of Ashby's cavalry, and that'*' he (General Shields) ap- 
prehended no danger of an attack. G.eneraLBanks left 


Winchester for Washington city, and gave himself no un- 
easiness with regard to Jackson, whom he imagined far 
away up the Valley. 

The federals occupied a strong position at Kernstown, 
and one which enabled them to see the arrival of General 
Jackson's forces. 

While on his march from Strasburg, General Jackson 
was informed by a party who had always given reliable 
information, that the federal force had been decreased to 
about 4,000 or 5,000 men, and this information, together 
with the fact that the enemy could observe his movements 
from their position, caused him to resolve to attack them 
at once. His troops were greatly fatigued, bat were in 
excellent spirits and eager fur battle. 

He left Colonel Ashby, together with Colonel Burks' 
brigade, to hold the Valley turnpike, and taking with him 
one piece of Carpenter's battery and Fulkerson's brigade, 
with Garnett's brigade following as a support, moved to 
the left in order to gain a position which would enable 
him to attack the federal right. He wished to, turn that 
flank of the enemy and drive him from his commanding 
position which it was not advisable to attack in front. 
The rest of Carpenter's guns find the batteries of Mc- 
Laughlin and Waters were hurried forward, and as soon 
as the desired point (a hill which commanded the federal 
position), was gained, the artillery opened the engage- 
ment. This movement had been partially concealed by 
the woods, and the enemy did not discover the real pur- 
pose of General Jack-on until the artillery opened their 
fire upon the right.* 

* God. Shields' report. 


The artillery having opened the battle, continued to 
advance, maintaining all the while a steady fire. The 
27th regiment, supported by the 21st, was thrown forward 
to meet the infantry of the enemy who were moving to- 
wards the confederate left. These two regiments gal- 
lantly drove the federals back twice in a short space of 

The brigade of Colonel Fulkerson was advancing -on 
the left of the 27th regiment, when the enemy in large 
force were seen moving rapidly towards a stone wall just 
in his front. The possession of it would be a great ad- 
vantage to either pjrty, and Colonel Fulkerson advanced 
his command at a run. The enemy seeing this quickened 
his pace, and an exciting race for the possession of the 
wall ensued. The confederates were the first to reach it, 
and falling on their knees and sheltering themselves be- 
hind it, poured such withering volleys into the federal 
ranks, that they recoiled in disorder, leaving one of their 
regimental flags upon the field. They rallied, however, 
but only to be driven from their new position by Colonel 
Fulkerson's brigade. 

Shortly after the action opened, General Carnett ar- 
rived on the field with the remainder of the " Stonewall 
brigade," (the 2nd, 4th and 33rd Virginia regiments), 
and the 1st Virginia battalion, and moving rapidly to 
the front, joined in the engagement which now became 

The confederates, though opposed by largely superior 
forces, (who were continually receiving reinforcements of 
fresh troops), held their ground with stubborn courage. 
Several times the ammunition of certain portions of the 
troops gave out.- Cartridges were passed rapidly from 


man to man by those who had yet a supply of them, and 
the deficiency was thus remedied. 

The battle continued to rage with great fury. The 
troops were fighting against greatly superior forces of 
the enemy, but they would not give way. The reserves, 
(which it will be remembered had been left in the Valley 
turnpike), were yet to come u;?, and there was a strong 
probability that a victory might be won. Unfortunately 
General Garnett ordered his men to fail back, and this 
unlucky movement was quickly taken advantage of by 
the enemy, who threw forward their lines, turned Fulker- 
son's right, and forced him to fall back. 

As soon as General Jackson saw his lines waver, he 
placed his hand firmly upon the shoulder cf a little drum- 
mer boy who happened to be by him, and said in a quick, 
sharp tone : 

" Beat - the rally !" 

The enemy poured a withering fire towards the spot, 
but General Jackson stood unmoved, holding the boy by 
his shoulder until the signal was sounded and the lines 
were reformed. 

Eor a moment defeat seemed inevitable ; but General 
Jackson posted the 5th Virginia at a point from which it 
could check the enemy's advance. This it did until Col- 
onel Burks arrived on the field with the 42nd Virginia. 
The advantage gained by the enemy enabled them to 
press on, but before they could profit further by it, the 
approach of night forced them to pause. Thus the battle 

General Jackson now drew off his force, and retiring 
to a point in the neighborhood of the field, passed the 
nio'lit there. 


Colonel Asliby had not been idle during the fight. By 
his skilful manoeuvering of his command, he protected 
the confederate rear and compelled the enemy to guard 
his front and left. 

The confederate force engaged in the battle of Kerns- 
town consisted of 2,742 infantry, 18 pieces of artiHery 
and 290 cavalry. Of these 80 were killed, about 200 
wounded, and 300, (including a large number of those 
who were wounded), taken prisoners. A number of the 
wounded fell into the hands of the enemy. The dead 
were left on the field, and two guns and four caissons were 
abandoned on account of the lack of means to remove 

The citizens of Y\ 7 inchester buried the .dead, and 
nursed the wounded tenderly. The prisoners were car- 
ried to Baltimore, where they were kindly cared for by 
the Southern citizens. 

The enemy's forces in the battle numbered at least 
8,000 men, with 3,000 additional troops in reserve. Their 
artillery was equal, if not superior to that of the confede- 
rates. Their loss has never been correctly, ascertained, 
but could hot have been less than 1,000 men. 

General Shields was in command of the enemy during 
the first part of the engagement, but was afterwards re- 
lieved by General Banks, who had been called back. 

The column of General Sedgwick, which had passed 
the Blue llidge at Snicker's gap, was recalled by the 
yankee commander. 

Though the battle of Kernstown did not end in a con- 
federate victory, it was far from being one for the enemy 
It is true, the enemy were left in possession of the field ; 
but the principal objects of General Jackson had been 


achieved. He had inflicted a severe blow upon General 
Banks' army, had crippled it for awhile, (and time was 
all important to the South), and had caused the recall of 
General Sedgwick's column, thus preventing the success 
of the movement upon General Johnston's army. All 
this he had accomplished with an army of less than three ' 
thousand men. Surely, when these facts are taken into 
consideration, the enemy's claim to a brilliant victory 
must fall to the ground as an empty boast. 

General Shields in his report, which is a most shameful 
perversion of the truth, claims to have won a great vic- 
tory, but makes the following acknowledgment : 

" The enemy's sufferings have been terrible, and such 
as they have nowhere else endured since the beginning of 
this war ; and yet such were their gallantry and high 
state of discipline, that at no time during the battle or pur- 
suit did they give way to panic." 

On the morning of the 24th, General Jackson fell back 
slowly to Strasburg. The enemy made no attempt at 
pursuit, but contented themselves with watching him 
safely out of the neighborhood, then fell back to 'Win- 
chester, and blocked the road betiveenihat place and Stras- 
burg, to prevent General Jackson from advancing upon 
them again. 

From Strasburg the army fell back to Mount Jackson, 
the retreat being covered by Colonel Ashby's command. 

At last General Banks, having become satisfied that 
General Jackson had no idea of advancing upon him 
again, threw forward a column in pursuit. 

It was about this time General Jackson first exhibited, 
in a remarkable degree, tln.t wonderful rapidity of move- 
ment for which he afterwards became so celebrated. His 


army had just reached Mount Jackson after a weary 
march of forty-six miles, when he was informed that the 
enemy was advancing up the Valley. This was on the 
22d of March. Determining to check their movements, 
he wheeled about, and by a forced march of more than 
forty miles, reached Kernstown the next day, struck a 
powerful blow at Banks' army, and within the next thirty- 
six hours was again at Mount Jackson.* 

General Jackson remained at Mount Jackson for nearly 
twenty days, and then abandoning that position, moved 
leisurely up the Valley towards Harrisonburg. Passing 
through that place he moved to the left, towards the Blue 
Ridge. On the 19th of April he crossed the south fork 
of the Shenandoah, and took position in Elk run valley, 
between the Shenandoah river and Swift run gap — a pass 
in the Blue Ridge. 

His position afforded him many advantages. It enabled 
him to march upon the enemy and dispute their advance 
towards Staunton and the Central railroad — to prevent 
their passing the Blue Ridge unmolested — or to move his 
force east of the mountains, should such a step be neces- 

It having become evident to the government that Gen- 
eral Jackson must be reinforced in order to enable him 
to make a successful defence of the Valley, General 

* The surprising rapidity with which he moved, soon became an 
universal theme of conversation, and gave rise to many amusing in- 
cidents. Upon one occasion a wag remarked that "Stonewall Jack- 
son was a better leader than Moses ;'' and upon being asked his reason 
for this assertion, replied: t; It took Moses forty years to lead the Is- 
raelites through the wilderness, while Jackson would have 'double- 
quicked ' tbem through it in three dayc." 


Ewell's division was ordered from Gordonsviile to join 
him. On the 30th of April, General Ewell arrived west 
of the Blue Ridge, and within supporting distance of 
General Jackson. This reinforcement was opportune, 
but the confederate army was still numerically inferior to 
that of the enemy. In spite of this inferiority. General 
Jackson was now enabled to put into execution his. long 
cherished idea of an aggressive campaign. 

General Banks advanced cautiously as far as Harri- 
sonburg, and occupied the town. He threw forward a 
small portion of his forces towards Swift run gap, and 
constant skirmishing occurred between this body and the 
confederate outposts. 

Before proceeding to the narration of the events that 
followed the arrival of General Ewell, it may not be out 
of place to glance at a few facts, a knowledge of which 
will greatly facilitate the reader in his attempts to form 
a proper estimate of the Valley campaign, upon which 
we are about to enter. 

It will be remembered that the army of General John- 
ston, greatly reduced in strength, had evacuated the po- 
sition at Manassas and had fallen back to the Rappahan- 
nock. The federal army. of the Potomac had advanced 
upon Manassas, and finding the works deserted and their 
plans frustrated, had returned to the Potomac and em- 
barked in their transports for Fortress Monroe. 

The disappearance up the Valley of Jackson's forces 
had induced the federal authorities to believe that he had 
gone to unite his command with the main army under 
General Johnston, and they felt no fear of any danger in 
the direction of the Shenandoah. A portion of Banks' 
forces were to be sent in pursuit of Johnston, a nominal 


force to be left in the Valley, and the main body was to 
move to Manassas and serve as a covering force for Wash- 
ington city. This plan would enable the troops intended 
to cooperate with General McClellan to act with greater 

The movement had already begun when the sudden 
blow struck, at Kernstown startled the federal authorities 
with the knowledge that Jackson, who they imagined on 
his way to join General Johnston, had fallen like a thun- 
derbolt upon their forces in the Valley. Banks returned 
to Winchester, the column already east of the Blue Ridge 
was recalled, and a part of their plan rendered abortive. 

It was evident that Jackson intended remaining in the 
Valley, and it became necessary to modify their plan of 
operations. , 

It was now determined to retain Banks in the Valley, 
and order Fremont's army from Western Virginia to his 
assistance. These two columns, when united, were to fall 
upon Jackson, crush or drive him before them, and descend 
upon Richmond from the mountains- 

In the mean time McClellan was to move up the Pen- 
insula and lay siege to the city ; and McDowell had 
orders to advance towards Richmond from Fredericks- 
burg, and to extend his left wing until he formed a junc- 
tion with McClellan in the neighborhood of Hanover 

The last of April saw all of these columns in motion. 

The dariger,which threatened the confederate capital 
was very great. A simple but hazardous plan for its de- 
fence was adopted by the Southern leaders. General 
Johnston's army, properly reinforced, was deemed suffi- 
cient for the protection of Richmond, but not a man could 


be spared from it at that time to dispute the advance of 
Fremont and Banks or McDowell. Accordingly orders 
were sent to General Jackson to prevent the advance of 
the armies in the mountains, and to divert McDowell 
from his march to Richmond. 

As we have seen, General Jackson's command had 
been reinforced by General Ewell's division, and was now 
in a better condition to execute his orders. 

It was necessary for him to move without delay. His 
position was full of danger. In his front lay the army 
of General Banks, who had advanced up the Valley for 
the purpose of uniting his forces with the column of Gen- 
eral Fremont. Fremont was advancing towards Staunton, 
and his advanced guard under General Milroy had al- 
ready forced the small command of General Edward John- 
son, (who commanded the confederate force left to oppose 
Fremont), back to a point near Staunton, a portion of 
the federals having crossed the She'iandoah mountain, 
and encamped near the turnpike between Harrisonburg 
and the "Warm springs. Banks and Fremont might unite 
their forces at any moment, move upon Staunton, and not 
only capture that place, but throw themselves between 
the column of General Jackson and that of General Ed- 
ward Johnson, who was lying near Buffalo gap, and de- 
feat them in detail. 

The situation was critical, and the plan upon which 
General Jackson determined, was hold and vigorous. He 
resolved to leave General Ewell to watch Banks and hold 
him in check, while he would unite his own division with 
General Johnson's command, and thus strengthened, fall 
upon Milroy, defeat him and drive him back across the 
mountain,?., and then returning to the Valley with Gene- 


ral Johnson's brigade, would unite these forces with those 
of General Ewell and drive Banks to the Potomac. 

The undertaking was one of great danger, and required 
extraordinary rapidity and firmness in its execution, but 
it was admirably suited to such an army and such a com- 

Being informed of General Fremont's approach, Gen- 
eral Banks, on the 4th of May, evacuated Harrisonburg, 
and fell back to a point lower down the Valley, from which 
he could communicate more readily with the western army. 

General Jackson had no time to lose. Ordering Gen- 
eral Ewell to occupy his (Jackson's) position in Elk run 
valley and prevent Banks from advancing, he moved rap- 
idly with his division towards Staunton, at which place he 
was joined by General Smith of the Virginia Military 
Institute with the corps of cadets, who, at his request, 
had come to join him in his defence of the upper Valley. 

On the 7th of May, General Jackson united his forces 
with those of General Edward Johnson, and hurried on 
after Milroy. General Johnson's brigade being in the 
advance, Jackson's division moved in the following order — 
General Taliaferro's, Colonel Campbell's and General 
Winder's brigades. 

The enemy's advance was encountered near the inter- 
section of the Staunton and Parkersburg and the Harri- 
sonburg and Warm springs turnpikes, and driven back 
with ease. .The federals retreated hastily, abandoning 
their baggage, and the. confederates halted for the night 
on the west side of the Shenandoah mountain. 

The next morning the army pushed forward, and was 
halted on Bull pasture mountain, near the village of Mc- 
Dowell in Highland county. 


General Milroy having been reinforced by the com- 
mand of General Schenck of Fremont's army, and ex- 
pecting to receive additional troops, had halted at Mc- 
Dowell for the purpose of disputing the advance of the 

Just before entering the village, the turnpike by ■which 
the confederates were advancing, (the only direct ap- 
proach to the place), passes through a narrow mountain 
gorge. This was commanded by the federal artillery, 
and a passage of it was impossible. 

To the left of the turnpike is a detached spur of the 
Bull pasture mountain, known as Setlington's hill. From 
this eminence could be obtained a fine view of the town 
and the valley in which it was situated. General John- 
son, with an escort of thirty men, ascended this hill for 
the purpose of reconnoitering the enemy's position and 
strength. A strong column of federal infantry was dis- 
covered in the valley ; two regiments held a height on 
the right, and a battery supported by an infantry force 
was posted about a mile in front. The enemy sent a lot 
of skirmishers to dislodge the party on the hill, but they 
were driven back bj General Johnson's escort. 

General Jackson now determined to occupy Settling- 
ton's hill, and ordered General Johnson's whole command 
to secure it. The 52d Virginia, (the first which came up), 
was thrown out on the left to act as skirmishers. It was 
supported soon afterwards hj the 58th. The 12th Geor- 
gia held the centre, (the crest of the hill), and the 44th 
Virginia was posted on the right. 

Having received his reinforcements under Schenck, 
Milroy determined to dispute the possession of the hill, and 
to attempt to dislodge the confederates by a direct attack. 



The 52d Virginia had hardly reached the place ^signed 
it, when it was attacked by the enemy's skirmishers, who 
were, however, repulsed in handsome style. 

Milroy's forces now advanced rapidly towards the hill, 
and emerging from the woods opposite the confederate 
right, began an impetuous attack upon that flank. The 
confederates held their ground stubbornly, and were soon 
reinforced by the 25th and 31st Virginia regiments of 
General Johnson's command, who had just come up. The 
31st Virginia had been stationed to guard the point at 
which the troops left the turnpike to climb the hill, and 
when they went into the action, this duty was performed 
by the 21st Virginia. 

The battle was now raging with great vigor along the 
whole line ; the enemy making desperate efforts to turn 
the confederate right. Seeing this, General Jackson sent 
the brigade of General Taliaferro to the assistance of 
General Johnson. The 23d and 37th Virginia were or- 
dered to the centre to the support of the 12th Georgia, 
which was manfully holding its ground, and the 10th 
Virginia was hurried to the right to reinforce the 52d, 
which had beaten back the federals from the left, and was 
gallantly assailing their right flank. 

The federals now threw a strong force upon the South- 
ern right, but were driven back by the brigade of Gene- 
ral Taliaferro and 12th Georgia. The 25th and 31st 
Virginia were ordered to secure an elevated piece of 
wood land on the right and rear, from which they could 
command the position of the enemy. Colonel Campbell's 
brigade now came up, and, with the 10th Virginia, was 
sent into the woods on the right to prevent any move- 
ment on the confederate right flank from that direction. 


Bein«j driven back in their last attempt, the enemy 
abandoned the hill and retreated to McDowell. 

General Jackson did not use his artillery in this en- 
gagement. The nature of the ground would have pre- 
vented the removal of the guns in case of a defeat, and 
he was unwilling t% run the least risk of losing them. 
The federal artillery was posted on a hill in front of the 
confederate line and kept up a heavy fire previous to the 
attack of the infantry, but owing to the conformation of 
the ground, inflicted no damage upon the confederates. 

The battle began at half-past four o'clock in the after- 
noon and ended at half-past eight at night — having lasted 
four hours. General Edward Johnson was in command 
of the troops on the field, and near the close of the en- 
gagement received a severe wound in the ankle, which 
for some time deprived the country of his valuable ser- 

The federal force numbered about 8,000 men. Gene- 
ral Jackson's was a little less. The confederates lost 71 
killed and 390 wounded — total 461. The enemy's loss 
was about 1,000 killed, wounded and prisoners. 

During the night the federals left McDowell and re- 
treated towards Pendleton county. 

The next morning General Jackson, (leaving the pris- 
oners and captured articles in charge of the corps of 
cadets under Lieutenant-colonel Preston, and a small 
body of cavalry), started in pursuit of Miiroy's defeated 
forces. Parties were sent to obstruct the North river, 
Dry river and Brock's gaps to prevent Banks from send- 
ing assistance to Milroy. 

The enemy halted a few miles beyond Franklin in Pen- 
dleton county, and commenced to fortify their position. 


Seeing this, and knowing that Milroy would soon receive 
reinforcements from Fremont, and feeling assured that 
he had very effectually put an end to all probability of a 
junction between Milroy and Banks, General Jackson 
returned to McDowell, which place he reached on the 
14th of May. 

Before leaving Franklin, General Jackson, on the 12th 
of May addressed his troops in a few terse and pointed 
remarks, thanking them for th«e courage, endurance and 
other high soldierly qualities they had displayed at the 
battle of McDowell, and on the march, and appointed 10 
o'clock of that day "as an occasion of prayer and thanks- 
giving throughout the army,. for the victory which fol- 
lowed that bloody engagement." 

A Avriter who was present, thus describes the solemn 
scene : 

" There, in the beautiful little valley of the South 
branch, with the blue and towering mountains covered 
with the verdure of spring, the green sward smiling a 
welcome to the season of flowers, and the bright sun, un- 
clouded, lending a genial refreshing warmth, that army, 
equipped for the stern conflict of war, bent in humble 
praise and thanksgiving to the God of battles for the 
success vouchsafed to our arms in the recent sanguinary 
encounter of the tw'o armies. While this solemn cere- 
mony was progressing in every regiment, the minds of 
the soldiery drawn off from the bayonet and the sabre, 
the enemy's artillery was occasionally belching forth its 
leaden death, yet ail unmoved stood that worshipping 
army, acknowledging the supremacy of the will of Him 
who controls the destinies of men and nations, and choses 
the weaker things of earth to confound the mighty." 


The country was painfully excited with regard to the 
threatening aspect of affairs west of the mountains, and 
anxious eyes were turned towards the gallant army of 
the Valley, striving in vain to pierce the gloom that 
seemed to enshroud it. The first gleam of light that 
flashed over the distant hills, was the news of the victory 
at McDowell, which was announced by General Jackson 
in the following graceful and characteristic dispatch: 

Valley District, May 9, '61. \ 
Via Staunton, May 10. J 
To General S. Cooper : 

God blessed our arms with victory at McDowell, yeterday. 

T. J. Jackson, Major-general. 

The first part of General Jackson's plan had succeeded 
admirably. Fremont's advance had been driven back, 
and the danger of a junction between this force and 
Banks' army averted. God had blessed every effort with 
success, and now nothing remained but to drive Banks 
out of the Valley. 

That officer, during the movement of General Jackson 
west of the Shenandoah mountain, had fallen back to 
Strasburg, which place he was fortifying. He had com- 
mitted the folly of dividing his forces, a portion of them 
being stationed at Front Koyal in Warren county. Gen- 
eral Shields' division (about 8,000 men), had been sent 
east of the mountains to join General McDowell at Fre- 

On the 15th of May, General Jackson left the village 
of McDowell, taking with him General Johnson's forces, 
and crossing the Shenandoah mountain, encamped at 
night near the Lebanon white sulphur springs. Here 
the troops were allowed a brief period of rest after their 


long and fatiguing marches, and the fast recommended 
by the president's proclamation occurring in the interval, 
was duly observed. On the 17th of May the army 
marched towards Harrisonburg. 

General Swell, whose orders were to watch Banks, had 
left Elk run valley, and had followed him down the Val- 
ley of Virginia as far as New Market, and General Jack- 
son hurrying on through Harrisonburg, formed a junction 
with Ewell's division near New Market. 

Having united his entire command, General Jackson 
began in earnest his movement against Banks. He de- 
termined to fall upon the federal .fo' - at Front Royal 
and capture it, hoping to get into Bank . 'var, or compel 
him to leave his works at Strasburg and i ; : back towards 
Winchester. In order to accomplish this, he left New 
Market and marched to Luray in Page county, leaving 
Ashby (who had been made a brigadier-general) to hold 
his position until the next morning, (in order that the 
movement might be as secret as possible), and then to 
rejoin the array, taking care, however, to leave behind a 
force sufficient to prevent any information of the move- 
ment reaching General Banks. 

General Jackson's army now consisted of his own di- 
vision, (the 1st, or " Stonewall brigade," under General 
Winder ; the 2nd brigade under Colonel Campbell ; the 
3rd brigade under Colonel Fulkerson) ; the troops of 
General Edward Johnson ; General Ewell's division, (the 
brigades of Generals Elzey, Trimble and Taylor) ; the 
Maryland line under Brigadier-general George H. Stew- 
art, (the 1st Maryland regiment and Brockenborough's 
battery) ; Ashby's cavalry ; and the 2nd and 6th Vir- 
ginia cavalry under Colonel Flournoy. 


On the 22d of May, General Jackson moved from Lu- 
ray towards Front Royal. Ewell led the advance and 
halted at night about ten miles from Front Royal. At 
daybreak on the morning of Friday the 23d of May, Gen- 
eral Jackson resumed his march. About a mile and a 
half from Front Royal, he encountered the federal pick- 
ets. These were driven in and followed rapidly try the 
advance of General Ewell, which consisted of the 1st Ma- 
ryland regiment supported by "Wheat's Louisiana bat- 
talion, followed by Taylor's brigade as a reserve. The 
federals made a brisk fight, but were driven rapidly 
through the town, losing a number of prisoners. 

The enemy halted a short distance beyond the town, 
and occupied a commanding ridge to the right of the 
turnpike, opening with their rifled cannon upon the ad- 
vancing columns of the confederates. 

A battery was moved forward to drive them from their 
position, the 6th Louisiana sent through the woods to 
turn their flank, and the 1st Maryland and Wheat's bat- 
talion advanced upon them from the front. The enemy 
offered but a feeble resistance to these last named forces, 
and as soon as their skirmishers were driven in, fell back 
across both forks of the Shenandoah river, and endea- 
vored to burn the bridge over the North fork. The con- 
federates, following rapidly, drove them from the bridge, 
extinguished the flames and crossed the river in pursuit. 
The enemy hurried on in the direction of Winchester — 
the confederates following with enthusiasm. 

General Ashby and Colonel Flournoy had been sent 
across the South fork of the river above the federal posi- 
tion, for the purpose of destroying railroad and telegraphic 
communication between Strasburg and Front Royal. Col- 


onel Flournoy executed his orders, and crossing the North 
fork, came up with a force of the enemy consisting of two 
companies of cavalry, two pieces of artillery and the 1st 
(U. S.) Maryland regiment and two companies of Penn- 
sylvania infantry. Colonel Flournoy had with him four 
companies of the 6th Virginia cavalry. A spirited at- 
tack was made upon the federals, who were driven back, 
but were soon rallied. A second attack was made upon 
them, and this resulted in the surrender of their infantry, 
the dispersion of their cavalry and the capture of their 
artillery. This force had been stationed near Cedarsville 
to check the confederate pursuit. 

General Ashby, moving towards the west, encountered a 
force of the enemy strongly posted at Buckton. He at- 
tacked and routed them. 

The army pushed on in pursuit for a short distance, 
but halted at dark. 

Seven hundred prisoners, two ten-pounder rifled Par- 
rott guns and a large amount of commissary and quar- 
termaster stores were captured during the day. General 
Jackson had turned the enemy's flank, and could now ad- 
vance towards the Potomac. 

A new precaution had to be taken now. If General 
Banks should determine to leave Strasburg, he had two 
routes of escape before him — one to the Potomac through 
Winchester ; the other through Front Royal to the neigh- 
borhood of Manassas and Washington city. In order to 
cut him off, it was necessary to watch both routes. Ac- 
cordingly General Jackson divided his forces. Retaining 
with himself the main body of the army, he moved to- 
wards Middletown, thirteen miles south of Winchester, at 
which point he wished to strike the Valley turnpike. 


This place was only five miles north of Strasburg, and 
should General Banks determine to remain in his works, 
it would be very easy to advance upon him. 

On the morning of the 24th, General Jackson moved 
towards Middletown, Ashley's cavalry being in the ad- 
vance. General Ewell was ordered to move towards 
Winchester. Brigadier-general George H. Stewart had 
been placed temporarily in command of the 2nd and 6th 
Virginia cavalry, and had been sent to Newtown, a point 
about nine miles south of Winchester, to observe the 
enemy and report his movements. Pie captured some 
prisoners, a number of wagons and ambulances with medi- 
cal stores and instruments. 

General Banks, as soon as he heard of the capture of 
Front Royal, determined to abandon Strasburg and re- 
treat to Winchester ; or as he says in his official report, 
" to enter the lists with the enemy (confederates) in a 
race or a battle — as he should choose — for the possession 
of Winchester." Judging by his movements, he must 
have concluded that he was "to enter the lists in a race ;" 
for he fell back from Strasburg with the greatest rapidity, 
abandoning on his march everything that was calculated 
to impede his army. 

Having been informed by General Stewart, that Banks 
was retreating from Strasburg, General Jackson pressed 
on. When he reached Middletown he found a dense 
mass of yankee cavalry hurrying along the Valley turn- 
pike, almost blocking up the road. Poague's and Chew's 
guns and General Taylor's infantry made a spirited at- 
tack upon these and soon put them to flight, having in- 
flicted upon them a heavy loss and captured many pris- 
oners. The enemy's column was pierced. A part re- 


treated towards Winchester. A lot of wagons was seen 
in the distance going north, and Ashby's cavalry was sent 
in pursuit. They had hardly started, -when the federal 
artillery, which had been cut off, opened upon General 
Jackson's command, seemingly with the intention to break 
through his line and secure its retreat to Winchester. 
Taylor's brigade was hurled upon this portion of the 
federal column, and soon it was flying towards Strasburg. 
This part of Banks' command afterwards crossed the 
mountains and retreated to the Potomac. 

General Jackson was now satisfied that the main col- 
umn of Banks' army had passed on towards Winchester, 
and he hurried on in pursuit. The enemy exhibited 
evidenaes of great panic and confusion. Wagons were 
upset in the road and abandoned or burned; clothing, 
arms, ammunition, everything that could impede their 
flight was thrown away by the men ; and prisoners were 
taken at almost every hundred yards. Everything was 
favorable to the belief that Banks' command was too 
greatly demoralized to make a successful resistance to 
the advance of the confederates. Still, hVwas necessary 
to continue the pursuit with unremitting vigor, as the 
enemy might be rallied if allowed time. 

Unfortunately the cavalry and infantry sent forward 
with General Ashby, tempted by the rich booty which 
surrounded them, abandoned the pursuit and turned their 
attention to plundering. General Ashby sought by every 
means in his power to make his men return to their duty, 
but in vain. They were deaf to all commands and ap- 
peals, and the artillery which had continued the pursuit 
as far as Newtown, was left without any support. A 
delay of two hours en:;ued. 


Profiting by the temporary cessation of the 'pursuit, 
the federals rallied and opened on the confederate batte- 
ries with four pieces of artillery, •which were posted on 
the northern edge of the town. Poague's two rifled guns 
replied with spirit to this fire. Matters stood thus when 
General Jackson arrived. About dark the federals aban- 
doned Newtown and fled towards Winchester. General 
Jackson pressed on in pursuit, meeting on all sides large 
numbers of wagons loaded with stores, abandoned, and 
in some cases fired by the enemy. Repeatedly during 
this night march the confederates were fired upon by am- 
buscaded parties of the enemy, and skirmishing continued 
throughout the night. 

General Jackson regarded it as of the highest impor- 
tance to seize before daylight, the hills around Winches- 
ter, and in spite of the darkness and many difficulties with 
which he met, continued to press forward his advance until 
nearly morning. The other troops came up more leisurely. 
General Ewell had moved forward by the road from 
Front Royal to Winchester, and had taken position about 
three miles from the latter place, 'with his pickets a mile 
in advance of his main column. His force consisted of 
Trimble's brigade, the 1st Maryland regiment, the cavalry 
under General Stewart, (which had been sent to him from 
Newtown), and Brockenborough s and Courtney's batte- 

About daybreak General Jackson moved forward upon 
Winchester. Finding that the enemy's skirmishers were 
m possession of the hill on the southwest, which over- 
looked the town, he ordered General Winder to dislodge 
them and secure the hill. This order was executed in 
handsome style by the "Stonewall brigade." 


Two Parrott guns, (of the Bockbri(l?;e artillery), and 
Carpenter's and Cutshaw's batteries were posted on the 
hill, and opened on a federal battery in front, which was 
keeping up an effective fire upon the confederates. About 
this time a federal battery and a detachment of sharp- 
shooters began a heavy fire from the left ; the position of 
the battery enabling it to enfilade the confederate artil- 
lery. The Parrott guns were turned to the left, and the 
sharpshooters were forced to protect themselves behind a 
neighboring stone wall. The battery, however, continued 
to pour in a heavy fire upon Poague, who changed his 
position to the left and rear, and opened effectively upon 
the federal battery on the left, occasionally firing solid 
shot at the stone wall, from behind which the yankee 
sharpshooters were keeping up a destructive fusilade 
upon the southern troops. Carpenter and Cutshaw had 
silenced the federal battery in front. 

During the artillery engagement, General Banks moved 
his infantry to the left, clearly intimating that he meant 
to occupy the northern portion of the hill. General 
Jackson ordered General Taylor to^heck this.. Taylor 
at once began to ascend the hill, passing in General 
Winder's rear, and climbing the steep, attacked the enemy 
with impetuosity and drove him down the hill and across 
the plain below. The " Stonewall brigade"' was now 
thrown forward, and the enemy recoiling before this mag- 
nificent charge, fled towards Winchester. 

General Elzey, whose brigade had been held in reserve, 
was now ordered forward, in pursuit. 

General Ewell had attacked the enemy with vigor on 
the right, and had succeeded in outflanking them and 
driving them from that portion of the hill. He then 


moved rapidly towards the eastern side of Winchester, 
and approached just as Taylor's brigade was advancing 
on the opposite side. There was now a probability of the 
federal army being entirely surrounded, as both of their 
flanks had been turned, and to avoid this they retreated 
rapidly into Winchester. 

The confederates hurried on in pursuit. A feeble re- 
sistance was made in the streets of the town, but the 
enemy were driven through it. In passing through Win- 
chester the troops were enthusiastically greeted by the 
citizens. One of the participants thus describes the 
scene : 

" Many were killed in the streets, and a remarkable 
feature of the day was that when the tide of battle rolled 
towards the town, the glorious women of Winchester 
turned out to give relief to our wounded and exhausted 
soldiers, and so regardless were they of danger, that they 
were not deterred from their pious duty by the shot and 
shell which fell around them. In the streets our men had 
to advance a guard to clear the women out of the way 
for our platoons toWeliver their fire. This, I am assured. 
Was literally the case in more instances than one." 

While passing through Winchester, the enemy made 
an ineffectual attempt to burn the town. They had pre- 
served up to this time a certain degree of order in their 
movements, but after passing beyond the town, a few 
shots from the confederate artillery threw them into the 
wildest confusion. 

The troops of General Jackson were greatly exhausted 
by their long marches, but his order was to "press right 
on to the Potomac." It was impossible to do this. The 
cavalry had not come up, and the infantry were incapable 


of keeping up with the enemy, and after a pursuit of two 
hours with the infantry and artillery, General Jackson 
was forced to order a halt. Ashby's cavalry could not 
be found, and an order was sent to Brigadier-general 
George H. Stewart who had under his command the 2nd 
and 6th Virginia cavalry, to move as rapidly as possible and 
join General Jackson " on the Martinsburg turnpike, and 
carry on the pursuit of the enemy with vigor." General 
Stewart replied that "he was under the command of 
General Ewell, and the order must come through him." 
After a slight delay, occasioned by this, General Stewart 
joined General Jackson with his cavalry and continued 
the pursuit, capturing many prisoners. 

On his march, General Stewart was joined by General 
Ashby and his cavalry, who had been dejayed hj attempt- 
ing to cut off a part of the federal force. The cavalry 
pursuit was continued to Martinsburg, where the troops 
captured a large amount of army stores. 

Banks was, by this time, out of danger, having crossed 
the Potomac and retreated into Maryland. His forces 
had retreated in great demoralization after their final 
rout at Winchester, and if. the cavalry of General Jack- 
son had conducted the pursuit with the ability and energy 
which he had the right to expect of them, but few of the 
fugitives would have succeeded in escaping across the Po- 

On the 26th of May, the army held a solemn thanks- 
giving to God for the success that had crowned their 
efforts, andV implored his favor in their future career. 
This day and the next were allowed to the army as a 
period of rest after their extraordinary exertions. 

Early on the morning of the 28th, General Winder 


"was ordered to move towards the Potomac, and at once 
set out in the direction of Charlestown, taking with him 
the " Stonewall brigade" and Carpenter's and Poague's 
batteries. Hearing that the enemy were in strong force 
at Charlestown, he sent information of this fact to Gen- 
eral Jackson, who directed General Ewell to go to his 
assistance with reinforcements. General Winder con- 
tinued to move forward, and upon arriving at the edge of 
the woods, a little less than a mile from Charlestown, dis- 
covered the federals, apparently about fifteen hundred 
strong, in line of battle. He moved on for the purpose 
of attacking them. 

As his command came in sight, the federals opened on 
it with two pieces of artillery. Carpenter's battery was 
thrown forward, and in twenty minutes forced, the fede- 
rals to retreat. They fled in great confusion, throwing 
aside their arms and equipments of all kinds. They were 
pursued to Ilalltown. Seeing a force of the enemy in 
position on Bolivar heights, General Winder returned to 

On the next day the army took position near Halltown, 
and the 2nd Virginia was sent to occupy the heights in 
Loudoun county, on the opposite side of the Shenandoah 
river, to drive the enemy out of Harpers Ferry and force 
them across the Potomac. 

Leaving the army at this point, let us glance at a few 
facts connected with the campaign: 

The expedition had been a complete success. In the 
brief period of twenty-two days, General Jackson had 
passed the mountains, defeated Milroy and driven him 
into Western Virginia ; then recrossing the mountains 
and hurrying down the Valley, had fallen upon Banks 


and driven him across the Potomac. In order to accom- 
plish this, the army had marched more than two hundred 
and fifty miles, had fought three battles and a number of 
minor engagements. They had sustained, in the opera- 
tions in the Valley, a loss of 68 killed and 329 wounded 
and 3 missing ; making a total of 400 men. The enemy 
lost about 800 men killed and wounded, and 2,300 pris- 
oners. In addition to these, 700 wounded men were 
found in the hospitals of "Winchester, and 50 in Stras- 
burg, making the total number captured 3,050, and hi3 
entire loss about 3,850. The sick and wounded were 
paroled in the hospitals, and the surgeons (eight .in num- 
ber)' who were taken with them, were unconditionally re- 
leased, after being held one day as prisoners of Avar. 

The army captured at Front Royal, Winchester, Mar- 
tinsburg and Charlestown, an exceedingly large amount 
of stores and other public property. A part of this was' 
saved, but a large portion of it was burnt for lack of 
means to remove it. Much of it was also issued to the 
citizens. Two large hospitals, furnished with every ne- 
cessary article, were found in Winchester, and left un- 
touched, with all their supplies for the use of the sick 
and wounded of the enemy. A large warehouse in Win- 
chester filled with medical stores was captured, and its 
contents saved. More than 100 head of cattle, 4'00 
wagons loaded, 34,000 pounds of bacon, large quantities 
of flour, sugar, coffee, army bread, cheese, and 600 sacks 
of salt, were accounted for by the proper officers, but 
large quantities of these stores were taken by the troops 
for their own use, and not accounted for. Sutlers stores, 
valued at $25,000 were given to the troops, there being 
no means of removing them. One hundred and twenty- 


five thousand, one hundred and eighty-five dollars worth 
of quartermaster stores were brought off and immense 
quantities destroyed ; and 9,354 small arms and 2 rifled 
cannon, constituted a part of the .ordnance stores which 
were brought away. 

General Jackson announced his victory in the follow- 
ing dispatch: 

Winchester, May 26th. 
To GeneralS. Cooper: 

During the last three days God has blessed our arms with bril- 
liant success. On Friday the federals at Front Royal were routed, 
and one section of artillery in addition to many prisoners, captured. 
On Saturday, Bank's main column, while retreating from Strasburg 
to Winchester, was pierced — the rear part retreating towards Stras- 
burg. On Sunday the other part was routed at this place. At last 
accounts Brigadier-general George H. Stewart was pressing them with 
cavalry and artillery, and capturing many. A large amount of ord- 
nance, medical and other stores have fallen into our hands. 

T. J. Jackson, Major-general. 

The defeat of General Banks' army and its flight into 
Maryland, together with the approach of General Jack- 
son to the Potomac, threw the government and people of 
the United States into a fever of excitement. The wild- 
est rumors prevailed every where that General Jackson 
was advancing upon Washington and that the city was in 
great danger. The federal secretary of war telegraphed 
to the governor of Massachusetts : " Send all the troops 
forward that you can immediately. Banks completely 
routed. * * * Intelligence from various 

quarters leave no doubt that the enemy in great force are 
advancing upon Washington. You will please organize 
and forward immediately all the volunteer and militia 
force in vour state." 

A feeling of perfect terror prevailed every where. 


Men wore long and anxious faces ; and the questions— 
"Where is Jackson?" "Has he taken Washington?" 
were upon every tongue. 

It will be remembered that a part of the federal plan of 
operations against Richmond, was the advance of Gene- 
ral McDowell from Fredericksburg towards that city, and 
that one of the chief objects of General Jackson's move- 
ment was to divert him from that march. General Jackson 
hoped, when the campaign opened, that the events would 
take such a turn as to enable him to cross the Potomac 
and attack Washington city. The situation of affairs 
after the defeat of Banks, did not admit of any attempt 
to put this movement into execution. 

After General Jackson retired up the Valley to the 
neighborhood of Swift run gap, General Banks fell back 
to Strasburg, and sent General Shields' division to rein- 
force General McDowell at Fredericksburg, who was pre- 
paring, to begin his march upon Richmond. 

On the 17th of May the federal secretary of war tele- 
graphed General McDowell to begin his march as soon a3 
Shields' division reached him. On the same day he wrote 
to General McClellan, then in front of Richmond, and 
clamoring for reinforcements, that McDowell had been 
ordered to join him, and would move in a few days " with 
between thirty-five and forty thousand men." 

Had this column been allowed to unite with McClellan, 
the condition of Richmond would have been far more 
critical. General McDowell in a letter to General Mc- 
Clellan, informed him that he would move about the 24th 
of May. 

The movement was never executed. All this while 
Jackson was marching rapidly down the Valley for the 


purpose of preventing it. On the 28rd, the day before 
McDowell was to have begun his march, the blow was 
struck at Front Royal, and the next day Winchester fell, 
and the broken fragments of the federal army were 
driven across the Potomac. 

The authorities at Washington had been suspicious of 
Jackson's intentions. Now they were seriously alarmed. 
It was resolved to abandon, or at least to postpone McDow- 
ell's movement upon Richmond, in order to ensure the 
safety of Washington city. Fremont, it will be remem- 
bered, had been ordered to move from Western Virginia 
to help Banks, and instructions were now sent to him to 
hasten his movements and fall upon Jackson's rear. 

On the 24th of. May, Lincoln sent the following order 
to General McDowell : 

" General Fremont has been ordered by telegraph to 
move from Franklin on Harrisonburg, to relieve General 
Banks and capture or destroy Jackson's or Ewell's forces. 
You are instructed, laying aside for the present the move- 
ment on Richmond, to put twenty thousand men in motion 
at once for the Shenandoah, moving on the line or in ad- 
vance of the Manassas gap railroad. Your object will 
be to capture the forces of Jackson and Ewell, either in 
cooperation with General Fremont, or in case a want of 
supplies or transportation interferes with his movement, . 
it is believed that the force with which you move will be 
sufficient to accomplish the object alone. The informa- 
tion thus received here makes it probable that if the 
enemy operate actively against Banks, you will not be able 
to count upon much assistance from him, but may even have 
to release him. Reports received this moment, are that 
Banks is fighting with Ewell eight miles from Winchester." 


On the same day General McDowell wrote to the sec- 
retary of -war : 

" The president's order has been received; is in pro- 
cess of execution. This is a crushing blow to us." 

On the same day he informed the president that Shields' 
division had been sent off. 

Thus, it will be seen, the remaining objects of the cam- 
paign had been successfully accomplished. McDowell 
had been prevented from joining McClellan. 

But this success, while it diminished the peril that hung 
over Richmond, only increased the danger that threatened 
General Jackson. He was now menaced by two armies, 
which were advancing rapidly upon him. Fremont was 
advancing upon him from Roniney, and Shields was 
marching from Fredericksburg. These forces were seek- 
ing to form a junction in his rear and cut off his retreat 
up the ~S alley. 

It was necessary to prevent this. On the 30th of May, 
he returned to Winchester with all his forces except the 
" Stonewall brigade" and the cavalry. General Winder 
was ordered to withdraw the 2nd Virginia from Loudoun 
heights, and then to rejoin the main body of the army 
with all speed. The cavalry were to accompany him. 

Before Winchester was reached, Front Royal had been 
captured by the federal cavalry, having been abandoned 
by the force left by General Jackson to hold it, (the 12th 
Georgia and 2 guns of Rice's battery under Colonel Con- 
nor. ) A party of federal prisoners and some of the con- 
federate troops fell into the hands of the enemy. About 
§300,000 worth of quartermaster and commissary stores 
captured there by General Jackson, were burnt to pre- 
vent their capture bv the enemy. 
" 12 


On the 31st of May, General Jackson left Winchester 
with his entire command, except the troops left with 
General Winder. He was informed that Fremont was 
approaching by way of Wardensville, endeavoring to 
reach Strasburg before him. The march of the two 
armies to Strasburg was literally a race between them. 

General Jackson's line, including his wagons and pris- 
oners, was nearly twelve miles long. 

Strasburg was reached that night ; the army having 
marched fifty miles since about noon of the 80th, encum- 
bered with a large park of artillery, a train of fifteen 
hundred wagons, and 2,300 prisoners. The men were 
far from being fresh, as their recent marches had greatly 
fatigued them, but they pushed On with cheerfulness, 
satisfied with the knowledge that " Old Jack" thought it 
necessary to move with speed. This wonderful march, 
together with their other movements, gained for them the 
title of " Jackson's foot cavalry." 

Having reached Strasburg, it was necessary for Gene- 
ral Jackson to hold it until General Winder could reach 
him ; and in order to observe the movements of Fremont, 
a small force was thrown out in the direction of Wardens- 
ville. The next morning, June 1st, this force was at- 
tacked by Fremont's advance. General Ewell was sent 
with his division to check the federal army. A spirited 
engagement ensued, which resulted in the federal advance 
falling back a short distance. 

Late in the day General Winder arrived, his troops 
having marched with great rapidity. Having united his 
forces once more, General Jackson on the evening of the 
1st of June left Strasburg, and resumed his retreat up 
the Valley. 



The confederate army had not gotten far from Stras- 
burg, before their departure was discovered by the ad- 
vanced forces of Fremont, who pushed on in pursuit. 
During the night the federal cavalry attacked Jackson's 
rear guard, but were driven back with the loss of several 

From these prisoners, General Jackson learned that 
Shields had been at Front Royal for two days without 
making any effort to effect a junction with Fremont, and 
-was then moving southwards. He at once supposed that 
Shields was marching on Luray for the purpose of moving 
from there to New Market, and intercepting his retreat. 
To prevent this, he had the White house and Columbia 
bridges over the South fork of the Shenandoah de- 

On the 2nd of June, Jackson's rear guard was attacked 
by the federal advance. At first the cavalry and artillery 
of the confederates were thrown into confusion by the 
fire of the federal artillery. The yankee cavalry pressed 
forward to charge them before they recovered from their 
confusion, but were repulsed by a handful of stragglers, 
which had been collected by General Ashby to meet this 

The 6th and 2nd Virginia cavalry were placed under 
the command of General Ashby, who was now given the 
charge of covering the retreat — a service which he per- 
formed with great skill and gallantry. 

On the 3rd of June the army reached Mount Jackson. 
After all the troops had crossed the bridge over the Shen- 
andoah, near the place, General Ashby was ordered to 
destroy it. He succeeded in doing so, incurring great risk 
in the execution of his orders, and losing his favorite horse. 


The army reached Harrisonburg early on the 5th of 
June. Leaving the town behind him, General Jackson 
wheeled to the left and marched to Port Republic. 

On the 6th of June, the enemy made a vigorous dash 
upon the confederate rear guard, at a point between Har- 
risonburg and Port Republic. General Ashby called for 
reinforcements of infantry, which were sent him. A 
severe skirmish ensued, and resulted in the repulse of 
the enemy, with a heavy loss in killed, wounded and 
prisoners. The confederates lost 17 killed, 50 wounded 
and 3 missing. 

In this skirmish, General Ashby was killed. He fell 
while leading a charge upon the enemy, and died instantly. 
He was a great loss to the South, but especially to Gene- 
ral Jackson's army.* 

General Jackson's army had now reached Port Re- 
public. Fremont's main column had arrived in the neigh- 
borhood of Harrisonburg, and Shields was at Conrad's 
store, about fifteen miles distant. General Jackson was 
nearly equi-distant from both of these columns. 

The destruction of the bridge over the South fork of 
the Shenandoah, at Conrad's store, having prevented 
Shields from passing the river at that point and effecting 
a junction with Fremont, he moved rapidly towards Port 

* la his official report, General Jackson has the following : 
" An official report is not an appropriate place for more than a pas- 
sing notice of the distinguished dead; but the close relation which 
General Ashby bore to my command for most of the previous twelve 
months, will justify me in saying that as a partisan officer, I never 
knew his superior. His daring was proverbial; his powers of endu- 
rance almost incredible; his tone of character heroic, and his saga- 
city almost jntuitive in divining the purposes and movements of the 


Republic, resolving to cross the river there and fall upon 

The town of Port Republic is situatud on a strip of 
land formed by the junction of the North and South 
rivers, which here empty into the South fork of the Shen- 
andoah. The North river, the larger and deeper of the 
tributaries, was crossed by a wooden bridge, over which 
lay the road leading from Harrisonburg. The South 
river could be forded. 

General Jackson resolved to prevent the junction of 
the forces of Shields and Fremont, and to offer them bat- 
tle separately. In order to carry out this plan, he divi- 
ded his forces. General Ewell was posted about four 
miles distant on the road leading to Harrisonburg, while 
the remainder of the army was encamped on some high 
ground beyond the village, about a mile from the river. 
Ewell was to check Fremont, while Jackson would attend 
to Shields. 

On the morning of the 8th of June, the scouts who had 
been sent out the night before to gather information 
respecting Shields' movements, came in and reported that 
the enemy would be in sight in a short time. Taliaferro's 
and Winder's brigades were ordered to take positions 
immediately north of the bridge. 

The yankee cavalry and artillery now came in sight, 
and after firing several shots at the bridge, crossed South 
river, and dashing into the village, planted one of their 
pieces at the southern end of the bridge. 

General Jackson had crossed the river, and was in 
Port Republic when the enemy occupied it. Upon re- 
turning to the bridge, be found the enemy in possession 
of the southern end of it, with a piece of artillery situa- 


ted so as to sweep it. Nothing daunted by this unpleas- 
ant discovery, General Jackson rode up boldly to the 
officer in charge of the gun, and demanded sternly : 

" Who told you to place this gun herd, sir ! Remove 
it and place it on yonder hill !" 

As he spoke, he pointed to an eminence some distance 
off. The officer bowed, limbered up his piece and pre- 
pared to move' away. When he had started, General 
Jackson put spurs to his horse and galloped across the 

The federal officer now saw the trick, and hastily un- 
limbering his gun, sent a shower of grape after General 
Jackson, which, however, passed harmlessly over his 

Upon reaching his command, General Jackson sent 
General Taliaferro's brigade to charge the piece and oc- 
cupy the town. Poague's battery was opened on this 
gun, which was subsequently captured by the 37th Vir- 
ginia. General Taliaferro then crossed his brigade, drove 
out the federal cavalry and occupied the town. A second 
piece of artillery was then taken from the federals. A 
column of infantry now made its appearance on the road 
by which the cavalry had advanced, but was soon driven 
back by the fire of the confederate batteries. It was* 
pursued for a mile by the Southern artillery on the op- 
posite bank, and forced to seek shelter in the woods. 
General Jackson held his position all day, expecting 
Shields to renew the attack, but that officer remained 

In the meanwhile General Ewell had taken position at 
Cross Keys, about five miles from Port Republic. His 
line was formed on a ridge commanding the country in 


front of it, which was open. Bodies of woods were on 
both flanks. The road from Harrisonburg to Port Re- 
public passed through his line near its centre. Trimble's 
brigade, posted a little in advance of the centre, held the 
right, Stewart's brigade the left, and Brockenborough's, 
Courtney's, Lusk's and Rains' batteries were placed in 
the centre. Elzey's brigade was posted in the rear of 
the centre, in order to support either of the wings, both 
of which were in the woods. 

The 15th Alabama had been thrown forward about a 
mile, and were attacked by Fremont's forces just after 
the movement of Shields had been checked near Port 
Republic. The gallant resistance made by this regiment, 
enabled General Ewell to form his line of battle. 

The battle of Cross Keys was opened about ten o'clock 
by the enemy's skirmishers. In a short time the federal 
artillery took position opposite the confederate batteries, 
and a brisk artillery engagement ensued, lasting for sev- 
eral hours. 

Fremont now threw forward a brigade, under cover, to 
turn the right flank of the confederates. This force was 
driven back in handsome style by the troops of General 
Trimble. A federal battery was placed in front of Gen- 
eral Trimble, and about half a mile distant. That officer 
had been reinforced by the 13th and 25th Virginia regi- 
ments of Elzey's brigade, and he at once moved towards 
the enemy for the purpose of taking the battery. It 
was withdrawn before he reached it, but he succeeded in 
driving back its infantry support, and occupying a posi- 
tion a mile in advance of his original line. The enemy 
retired to the position held by them early in the morning. 
About two o'clock in the afternoon, General Ewell was 


reinforced by Taylor's brigade, the 42nd and 48th Vir- 
ginia and the 1st battalion of Virginia regulars. Tay- 
lor's brigade was held in reserve, and the other reinforce- 
ments and Elzey's brigade, (with the exception of the 
two regiments which had been sent to General Trimble,) 
placed in the centre and on the left. 

It was reported about this time that the enemy were 
advancing in heavy force upon the left, and General 
Ewell prepared to resist their attack. The report proved 
false, and General Ewell advanced his lines ; and when 
night closed the struggle, Fremont had been driven back 
tAvo miles, and the confederates held the ground origi- 
nally occupied by the enemy. 

After nightfall, General Jackson withdrew General 
Ewell's troops and reunited them with the rest of the 
army. He left General Trimble's brigade, supported by 
the 42nd Virginia and the 1st battalion of Virginia regu- 
lars under Colonel Patton, in Fremont's front, with orders 
to hold him in check as long as possible, and then to 
fall back across North river, and burn the bridge after 

During the night, General Fremont massed his troops 
before Cross Keys, and the next morning, as soon as the 
sound of cannon in his front told him that Jackson had 
fallen upon Shields, marched to his assistance. General 
Trimble's little force fell back before him, skirmishing all 
the way, and by ten o'clock in the morning had crossed 
the river and destroyed the bridge. 

About sunrise on the morning of the 9th of June, Gen- 
eral Winder's brigade passed through Port Republic, 
crossed the South fork of the Shenandoah on a tempo- 
rary bridge made of wagons sunk in the stream, and 


moved down the road along the bank of the river to at- 
tack the enemy. 

General Shields had formed his line of battle about a 
mile and three-quarters below Port Republic. His posi- 
tion was well chosen. His right rested upon the river, 
and his line extended for about half a mile over an open 
wheat field. His left rested upon the point of a low 
ridge that skirted the field at that side, and was partially 
protected by a copse of woods. Upon this ridge he had 
posted a battery of six pieces, which commanded the 
river road and the plain across which the Southern troops 
had to advance to attack him ; and upon some slight emi- 
nences in the river bottom he had planted two or three 
additional pieces. The position was admirably suited for 
defence, while the country in which General Jackson had 
to operate, was by no means favorable to him. 

About a mile and a half below Port Republic, General 
Winder drove in the federal pickets and began the en- 
gagement. The enemy opened upon him with a sharp 
fire of shell, causing him to suffer severely. Poague's 
two Parrott guns were posted on the left of the road for 
the purpose of silencing the federal batteries. It being 
impossible to move Carpenter's battery to the right, 
through the tangled undergrowth, a part of -it was placed 
in position near the Parrott guns. 

General Wilder having been reinforced by the 7th 
Louisiana, and being unable to silence the federal battery 
by his artillery, resolved to charge it and capture it. 
Accordingly he threw forward his brigade. It advanced 
gallantly, but was received by the enemy with such a 
withering fire from their battery and infantry, that it 
was forced to fall back towards the river. The federals 


now advanced, and driving back the infantry supports, 
forced the Southern batteries to retire, and captured a 
six-pounder gun belonging to Poague's battery. General 
Ewell now threw the 58th and 44th Virginia under Colo- 
nel Scott, upon their flank, and checked their advance. 

It was a critical moment. Winder's command was 
largely outnumbered, and was in danger of being over- 
whelmed. At this moment the enemy were startled by a 
new danger to themselves, and forced to turn their atten- 
tion to another part of the field. 

Some time before this, seeing the danger that threat- 
ened Winder, General Jackson turned to General Taylor, 
and asked, pointing to the federal guns : 

" Can you take that battery ? It must be taken, or 
the day be lost !" 

"We can," replied Taylor; and pointing his sword to 
the battery, he cried to his men, " Louisianians, can you 
take that battery?" 

A cheer answered him. 

"Forward!" he cried. "Charge the battery and 
take it!" 

In order to reach the battery, Taylor moved through 
the woods that lined the ridge on the federal left. He 
moved rapidly over a rugged country and through a 
dense forest, and emerging from the woods just as the 
federals were forcing Winder towards tip river, charged 
the battery in the face of a terrific fire and captured it. 

The federals threw a heavy force upon Taylor, who 
was assailing their left and rear, and a desperate struggle 
ensued for the possession of the battery. It was retaken 
three times by the enemy, and as often captured again by 
the confederates. The enemv made desperate efforts to 


turn Taylor's flank, and opened on him a perfect shower 
of canister from a piece which had been rapidly brought 
into position about three hundred and fifty yards distant. 

Taylor fell back to the edge of the woods, from which 
he had emerged, and here the federals succeeded in re- 
capturing and carrying off one piece of the battery taken 
by Taylor, leaving the limber and caisson behind. 

General Shields now abandoned his movement upon 
Winder, and bent every energy to destroy Taylor. 

General Winder succeeded in rallying his command, and 
once more advanced upon the federals, who were trying 
to surround Taylor in the woods. Poague's battery was 
placed in its former position, and opened upon them ; 
Chew's battery, which had just come up, was assigned a 
position, and its fire opened on the enemy. Portions of 
Courtney's, Brockenborough's and Rains' batteries arri- 
ving afterwards, were placed in position and opened on 
the enemy. The 44th and 58th Virginia were sent to 
reinforce Taylor, who, upon their arrival, advanced his 
command upon the enemy, now suffering severely from 
the heavy fire of the Southern batteries, and forced them 
to fall back. Another charge, and the enemy broke and 
fled in confusion, leaving a number of their dead and 
wounded on the field. 

General Taliaferro's brigade had been left to hold the 
town of Port Republic, and secure the safe passage of 
North river by General Trimble's commands. After 
Trimble crossed the river, he remained in the town. 
These troops had been ordered to join General Jackson, 
when Winder was driven back on the federal right, and 
came upon the field just as the enemy began their retreat. 
Taliaferro s brigade, pouring a heavy fire into the flying 


mass, joined in the pursuit, which was conducted by this 
brigade and that of General Winder, for five miles. 
The enemy retreated in the direction of Luray. The 
cavalry, under Colonel Munford, and some artillery, pur- 
sued them three miles further. In their retreat, the 
enemy lost 450 prisoners, 800 muskets, a number of 
wagons and one piece of artillery, which had been aban- 
doned. About 275 wounded federals fell into the hands 
of the confederates, and were paroled in the hospitals' 
near Port Republic. 

Fremont had been moving rapidly to Shields' assist- 
ance. He appeared on the opposite side of the South 
fork of the Shenandoah, as the routed federals were 
flying from the field. Being unable to cross to their as- 
sistance, he revenged himself by shelling the confederates 
who were on the field removing the wounded and burying 
the dead of both armies. He remained in t*he neighbor- 
hood of Port Republic until the 10th of June, when he 
drew off his army and retreated rapidly down the Valley. 

On the 12th, the cavalry under Colonel Munford, sent 
out to ascertain Fremont's position, entered Harrison- 
burg, capturing a quantity of stores and camp equipage, 
about 200 small arms, and"' 200 wounded men belonging 
to Fremont's army, who were paroled. 

The confederate loss in the battles of Cross Keys and 
Port Republic was 1,026 killed, wounded and missing, 
and one piece of artillery. The federal loss is not accu- 
rately knoAvn. It was about 2,000 or 2,500 killed, 
AYOunded and prisoners, seven pieces of artillery, with 
caissons and limbers, and 1,000 small arms. 

The war department at Richmond received from Gen- 
eral Jackson, the following announcement of his victory : 


Poet Republic, June 9th. \ 
Via Staunton, June 10th, 1862. J 

To S. Cooper, Adjutant-general : 

Through God's blessing, the enemy, near Port Republic, was 
this day routed with the loss of six pieces of his artillery. 

T. J. Jackson, Major-general. 

Shields, after his defeat, retreated rapidly towards Lu- 
ray, and Fremont fell back to Mount Jackson and began to 
fortify his position, being in hourly expectation of an 
advance by Jackson. 

On the 12th of June, General Jackson again crossed 
South river and marched to the neighborhood of Weyer's 
cave. " On the 14th, divine gervice was held in the 
army," and thanks returned to God for the success that 
had crowned the confederate arms. 

The Valley campaign — beginning with the advance of 
Banks upon Winchester, on the 11th of March, and end- 
ing with the crushing defeat of Shields at Port Republic — 
was closed. It had been one of extraordinary vigor 
and brilliancy. In the brief space of three' months 
through which it extended, hundreds of miles had been 
marched — three separate armies intended for the s destruc- 
tion of the little band of heroes, routed — the colossal 
plans of the enemy for the subjugation of Virginia over- 
thrown, and the record of Southern prowess brightened 
by the names of Kernstown, McDowell, Front Royal, 
Strasburg, Middletown, Winchester, Charlestown, Cross 
Keys and Port Republic. 

Let us glance at the leading features of the campaign. 

The army fell back from Winchester on the 11th of 

March, and retired as far as Mount Jackson, and then, 

rapidly retracing its steps, fought the battle of Kerns- 


town on the 23d. Retiring again to Mount Jackson, it 
rested for a brief period until, upon the enemy's advance 
up the Valley, it retired to the neighborhood of Swift 
run gap. On the 7th of May it swept over the moun- 
tains, fell upon Fremont's advance and drove it back 
in confusion. Then bearing eastward, it returned to 
the Valley, and falling suddenly upon General Banks, 
routed his army and drove it out of Virginia, capturing 
and immense amount of spoils and over three thousand 
prisoners. Then by a retrograde movement, the celerity 
of vrhich seems almost superhuman, it returned to the 
upper Shenandoah, baffling the efforts of the federal 
commanders, and defeating with heavy losses, the very 
forces sent to capture it. In thirty-two days it had 
marched nearly four hundred miles, skirmishing almost 
daily, fought five battles, defeated three armies, two of 
which were completely routed, captured about twenty 
pieces of artillery, some four thousand prisoners, and 
immense quantities of stores of all kinds, and had done 
all this with a loss of less than one thousand men killed, 
wounded and missing. Surely a more brilliant record 
cannot be found in the history of the world ; and General 
Jackson might well say this was accomplished "through 
God's blessing." 

The campaign was planned and executed by General' 
Jackson, and must constitute the real test of his gene- 
ralship. He struck at the enemy boldly, vigorously and 
successfully. Sweeping them before him with irresistible 
force, he placed his command in a position in which the 
federals thought it easy to annihilate it. Two strong 
columns were hurled upon him, with great hope of crush- 
ing him. He moved rapidly between these, and when he 


reached his mountain lair, turned fiercely upon them and 
drove both down the Valley with the fury of a lion at 
bay. Every plan of the enemy was defeated, their most 
secret devices penetrated and foiled, and just at the mo- 
ment when* they thought their success complete, they 
were hurled from the path of the great commander, 
stunned by the force of the blow. We can compare this 
campaign with but one other — Napoleon's first campaign 
in Italy. Indeed, if, in this comparison, we remember 
that the army of Italy was composed of regular troops 
enured to the hardships and fatigues of war, and that 
Jackson's men were volunteers, some of whom had never 
seen service, and all of whom had to learn the art of war, 
we shall find the comparison not unfair, and the com- 
mander of the glorious army of the Valley will not suffer 
by it.* 

General Jackson had not only beaten his enemies ; he 
had done more — he had conquered public opinion, and 
fought his way into the affections of his countrymen. 
When he took command in the Valley, in the fall of 
1861, he was comparatively unknown, or known simply 
as a major-general commanding a portion of the confede- 
rate army. He was severely censured for his Bath and 
Romney expedition, declared by numerous home-made 
military critics, a rash, blundering blockhead, and the 
great mass of the people began-to doubt whether he was 
the proper person to be entrusted with such an important 
command. The people of the South were not less sur- 

* The late Colonel Crozet, who had served under the great Napo- 
leon, was once asked if Jackson's movements did not remind him of 
the emperor's. " Sir !" exclaimed the old man with enthusiasm, 
'' they are extra Napoleonic .'" 


prised than were the enemy, by the suddenness and bril- 
liancy of the movement upon Kernstown, and began to 
see a probability that Jackson might be a very good sol- 
dier after all. The news from McDowell had scarcely 
been realized, when it was followed by the bulletins an- 
nouncing the success of the expedition against Banks. 
General Jackson now appeared in a new light, and when 
the story of the march up the Valley and the battles of 
Cross Keys and Port Republic was told, he stood fore- 
most among the heroes of the war. The people were 
surprised, delighted, fascinated. There was about the 
exploits of Jackson so much splendor and attraction, 
that they could not fail to attract the hearts and take 
captive the imaginations of the public. His deeds were 
full of romance and chivalry, and high above them all 
shone out the pure and beautiful character of the man. 
The people were astonished, but it was because they 
had not known General Jackson. He exhibited no new 
trait to cause all their admiration. The young artille- 
rist, pacing calmly before his guns in Mexico, to show 
his men that the enemy could not hurt him, and then 
pushing forward stubbornly, sweeping the enemy before 
him — the quiet professor, whose earnestness, firmness and 
rigid discipline were the wonder and amusement of his 
pupils — the calm, undismayed brigadier, whose only rem- 
edy for the danger of defeat was the bayonet — the deter- 
mined, taciturn major-general who led the march to Bath 
and filled his hospitals with his sick — the rapid marcher 
who fell upon Shields at Kernstown — the commander of 
an army who freed the Valley from the enemy — the skil- 
ful strategist, who baffled the schemes of his foes and 
crushed them at the very moment they thought him in 


their power — all these were but the various developments 
of the character of one man — the glorious hero, whose 
name was now on every tongue — and in every aspect 
in which that character had presented itself, might be 
seen the same striking features — the marks that dis- 
tinguished him from other men. Those who knew him 
intimately, were not surprised at his success. They had 
been expecting it. When the war began, one man had 
the wisdom and courage to recommend Jackson to the 
governor of Virginia, as the best man to be given the 
command of the state troops, and it was fortunate that 
the recommendation was heeded. 

Having taken hold of the popular affection, General 
Jackson was not very fairly treated. The popular idea 
of his personal appearance was not in accordance with 
the reality, and many extravagant pictures of him were 
drawn by various persons. 

Captain Cooke, in his biography of him, presents the 
most truthful sketch I have yet seen, and I cannot refrain 
from introducing it here. It is as follows : 

" The outward appearance of the famous leader was 
not imposing. * * * * * * * 

He wore an old, sun-embrowned coat of gray cloth, origi- 
nally a .very plain one, and now almost out at the elbows. 
To call it sun-embrowned, however, is scarcely to convey 
an adequate idea of the extent of its discoloration. It 
had that dingy hue, the result of exposure to rain and 
snow and scorching sunshine, which is so unmistake- 
able. It was plain that the general had often stretched 
his weary form upon the bare ground, and slept in the 
old coat ; and it seemed to have brought away with it no 
little of the dust of the Valley. A holiday soldier would 


have disdained to wear such a garment ; but the men of 
the old Stonewall brigade, with their brave comrades of 
the corps, loved that coat and admired it and its owner 
imore than all the holiday uniforms and holiday warriors 
in the world. The remainder of the general's costume 
was as much discolored as the coat ; he wore cavalry boots 
reaching to the knee, and his head was surmounted by 
an old cap more faded than all ; the sun had turned it 
quite yellow, indeed, and it tilted so far over the Avearer's 
forehead, that he was compelled to raise his chin in the 
air, in order to look under the rim. His horse was not a 
" fiery steed," pawing and ready to dart forward at "the 
thunder of the captains and the shouting," but an old 
raw-boned sorrel, gaunt and grim — a horse of astonishing 
equanimity, who seemed to give himself no concern on 
any subject, and calmly moved about, like his master, 
careless of cannon ball or bullet, in the hottest moments 
of battle. The general rode in a peculiar fashion, lean- 
ing forward somewhat, and apparently unconscious that 
he was in the saddle. His air was singularly abstracted, 
and unless aware of his identity, no beholder would have 
dreamed that this plainly clad and absent looking soldier 
was the idolized leader of a great army corps, at that 
very instant hurling themselves, column after column, 
upon the foe. The glittering eye beneath the yellow cap 
would have altered somewhat the impression that this 
man was "a nobody" — that wonderful eye, in whose 
blaze was the evidence of a slumbering volcano ; but be- 
yond this, there was absolutely nothing in the appear- 
ance of General Jackson to indicate his great rank or 
genius as a soldier." 

General Jackson's habits and mode of life were very 


simple. He lived very plainly, never asking for anything 
his men could not share, unless it was necessary to him. 
He had but one tent, and that one no better than if it 
had belonged to the humblest private in his command. 
Often he was without it. He seemed to be pleased when 
he had left it behind, and then, wrapping himself up in 
his blankets, and lying down on the ground he would 
sleep as soundly as if he were in a palace. He made 
very little use of the privileges to which his rank entitled 
him. He believed that luxuries unfitted a soldier for his 

He was a sincere christian, and his habits were strongly 
marked by his earnest, unaffected piety. He had a high 
temper, but he ruled it so well that it was rare for him to 
give way to outbursts of passion, and when he did so, it 
was only under some sudden and powerful provocation. 
He was kind and gentle, very forbearing and exceedingly 
charitable towards others. 

Captain Cooke, from whose valuable work I have already 
quoted at some length, says of him : 

"Jackson's habitual temper of mind was a gentle and 
child-like sweetness ; a simplicity and purity of heart, 
which proved that he had indeed become "as a little 
child" — walking humbly and devoutly before his God. 
Prayer" was like breathing with him — the normal condi- 
tion of his being. Every morning he read his bible and 
prayed, and the writer will not soon forget the picture 
drawn by one of his distinguished associates, who rode to 
his headquarters at daylight, last November, when the 
army was falling back to Fredericksburg from the Valley, 
and found him reading his testament quietly in his tent, 
an operation which he only interrupted to describe, in 


tones of quiet simplicity, his intended movements to foil 
the enemy. Before sitting clown to table, he raised both 
hands and said grace. When he contemplated any move- 
ment, his old servant is said to have known it by his 
" wrestling in prayer" for many hours of the night; and 
on the battle field thousands noticed the singular gesture 
with the right arm, sometimes both arms, raised aloft. 
Those who looked closely at him at such moments, saw 
his lips moving in prayer. Like Joshua, he prayed with 
uplifted hands for victory." 

And yet some persons called Jackson " a puritan." 
It is true the religious element of his character was one 
of its most striking features, but he made no parade of 
his piety. He was so earnest, so simple, that he was 
utterly unconscious of the fact that he was one of the 
brightest lights of the church on earth. So far from 
being a puritan, he was one of the most liberal men in 
matters of religion, to be found in this liberal land. The 
writer of these pages knew him while he was a prominent 
member of the Presbyterian church in Lexington, at a 
time when religious disputes were running high in that 
little town, and was struck with his true christian charity 
for the honest convictions of other parties. 

A short time before his death, he wrote to a friend in 
relation to the duties and difficulties of army chaplains : 

"Denominational distinctions should be kept out of 
view — and not touched upon. And as a general rule, I 
do not think that a chaplain who would preach denomi- 
national sermons should be in the army. His congrega- 
tion is his regiment, and is composed of various denomi- 
nations. I would like to see no questions asked in the 
army what denomination a chaplain belongs to, but let 


the question be, does he preach the gospel ? The neglect 
of the spiritual interests of the army may be seen from 
the fact that not half of my regiments have chaplains." 

Let us resume the narration of General Jackson's 

The command of the confederate army before Rich- 
mond having been assumed by General Lee, on the 1st of 
June, he had determined to attack McClellan as soon as 
possible and raise the siege of the city. Jackson had 
drawn the column of General McDowell from its march 
to McClellan's assistance, and it was necessary to strike 
the enemy before this column could be sent to it again. 

Reinforcements from Lee's army were sent to General 
Jackson, and he was ordered to march at once to the 
Chickahominy for the purpose of joining in the struggle 
for the confederate capital. Shields had disappeared 
down the Valley, Fremont was fortifjnng at Mount Jack- 
son, and it was evident General Jackson had nothing to 
fear from either of them. Leaving General Robertson's 
brigade of cavalry and Chew's battery to cover his move- 
ments and watch the enemy, he left his camp near TVey- 
er's cave on the 17th of June, and began his march to 

The movement of General Jackson was very hazardous, 
and it was necessary to preserve the greatest secrecy 
concerning it. The troops were ordered to maintain the 
strictest silence regarding it. They were instructed to 
give no information to any one during the march. If 
questioned as to their destination, the names of their 
commanders, or from what place they had come, they 
were to reply : " I don't know." 

This gave rise to an amusing incident. On the second 


day of the march, one of the men belonging to Hood's 
brigade, (which had been detached from Lee's army and 
sent to Jackson), left the ranks, and started towards a 
cherry tree in a neighboring field. General Jackson, 
happening to be near, observed this, and riding up to the 
man, asked : 

" Where are you going, sir ?" 

"I don't know," replied the man coolly. 

" To what command do you belong ?" 

" I don't know." 

" Well ! what state are you from ?" asked the general 
in great astonishment. 

" I don't know," replied the man with the utmost 

Another straggler had now come up, and General Jack- 
son turning to him, asked in sunrise : 

" What is the meaning of this ?" 

" Why, you see," said the man, " Old Stonewall and 
General Hood issued orders yesterday that we were not 
to know anything until after the next fight ; and we are 
not going to disobey orders." 

The general smiled, and ordering the men to take their 
places in the ranks, rode oif, much pleased with the 
fidelity with which his orders were executed. 

At Gordonsville the troops were embarked on the cars, 
and conveyed as far as Frederick's hall in Louisa county. 
Leaving the cars there they moved across the country, 
and on the evening of the 25th of June, reached the 
little village of Ashland in Hanover county, sixteen miles 
from Richmond, driving in the enemy's pickets, which 
were stationed near that place. 

The federal army under General McClellan was lying 


on the Chickahominy about four or five miles below Rich- 
mond. Its right wing held Mechanicsville, a little village 
in Hanover county, with detached portions occupying the 
heights as far as the Meadow^bridges. From Mechan- 
icsville, its line extended along the north bank of the 
Chickahominy, following the direction of that stream, 
(which sweeps around Richmond from west to east in a 
semi-circular course), to Bottom's bridge. Its right wing 
had been thrown across the river near Bottom's bridge, 
and was massed along the line of the York river railroad 
as far as Fair Oaks station. The federals had strength- 
ened their position by a series of most elaborate fortifi- 
cations, and deemed themselves so secure, that General 
McClellan, in a speech to a portion of his army, assured 
them that no troops in the world could carry such works 
if defended by even a handful of men. 

When the enemy crossed the Chickahominy in May, 
and advanced his lines towards Richmond, General John- 
ston, then in command of the confederate army, had 
dealt them a terrible blow at Seven Pines, and forced 
them to halt at Fair Oaks station. General Johnston 
was wounded in the battle, and the command passed to 
General Lee. 

General Lee determined to strike the enemy at the 
earliest moment. His plan was worthy of his great 
genius. It was to turn McClellan's left flank, get in his 
rear, attack him in his strong works on the north bank 
of the Chickahominy, and drive him from them. This 
would compel the federal commander to reunite his forces 
on one side of the stream, and would give the confede- 
rates an opportunity to throw their entire army upon 
him, defeat him and raise the siege of the city. 


The disposition of McClellan's troops was highly favor- 
able to the success of such a plan. He had placed the 
Chickahoininy between his two wings, and had by the 
nature of his line rendered it impossible for either wing 
to .strengthen the other without exposing itself to the 
danger of defeat. 

So skilfully and surely laid were the plans of General 
Lee, that when the attack was made, McClellan's defeat 
was inevitable. Indeed, the latter was aware of the ar- 
rival of Jackson at Ashland almost as soon as the place 
was reached by the Valley forces, and on the 25th of 
June, wrote to Secretary Stanton — "I incline to think 
that Jackson will attack my right and rear. * * * 
I shall probably be attacked to-morrow." 

This knowledge availed him nothing. The young Na- 
poleon felt that his sun had set. Lee held him with a 
hand of iron. He saw clearly his approaching ruin, but 
he was powerless to avert it. General Lee had saved 
Richmond before a blow was struck. 

To General Jackson, General Lee assigned the duty of 
turning McClellan's left flank, gaining his rear, and cut- 
ting off his retreat from the White House. 

General Jackson's command now comprised the follow- 
ing troops: Major-general Whiting's division, which had 
been sent him from Lee's army, (consisting of General 
Hood's and Colonel Law's brigades and Reilly's and 
Balthis' batteries); Major-general Ewell's division, (con- 
sisting of General Elzey's, (4th); General Trimble's, 
(7th), and Colonel Seymour's (8th, Taylor's old brigade) 
brigades ; the Maryland line ; Colonel Johnson and Brock- 
enborough's, Courtney's and Carrington's batteries ; 
General Jackson's old division, (consisting of General 


Winder's, (the 1st, the "Stonewall"); Lieutenant-colonel 
Cunningham's, (the 2nd) ; Colonel Eulkerson's, (the 3rd), 
and General Lawton's, (the 4th) brigades, and Poague's, 
Carpenter's and Wooding's batteries. 

With this force Jackson was to attack the enemy in 
flank and rear, while Lee with the main army would at- 
tack them in front. 

At three o'clock on the morning of the 26th of June, 
General Jackson left Ashland and marched towards Han- 
over courthouse. Stuart's cavalry moved in front of his 
column and protected his left. Whiting's division 
in the advance. The federal pickets fell back before 
General Jackson, and made no resistance until Tottapo- 
tomoi creek was reached. Th^s creek is scarcely more 
than a swamp, and the banks, which are covered with a 
thick woods, are steep and difficult of ascent. Here the 
federals destroyed the bridge and attempted to obstruct 
the road by felling trees. A detachment of skirmishers 
from Hood's brigade soon drove the enemy from their 
position, the bridges were repaired, the stream crossed, 
and the march resumed. During the remainder of the 
day the enemy made repeated, feeble attempts to impede 
the advance of Jackson's forces, but were driven steadily 
before them. 

General Jackson halted for the night at Hundley's 
corner in Hanover. He had now turned the federal 
right flank and gained their rear. He was in possession 
of a position which would enable him to fall' upon Mc- 
Clellan's rear at Cold Harbor the next day, and, if ne- 
cessary, he could cut off the retre^of the federals to- 
wards the White House. 

Early the next morning he moved rapidly towards 


Cold Harbor. While he is on his march, let us glance 
at affairs in other quarters of the great field.. 

Brigadier-general Branch, on the afternoon of the 
26th of June, crossed the Chickahominy at the point 
where the Brook turnpike crosses that stream, and dri- 
ving the enemy's forces before him, marched down the 
river to effect a junction with Major-general A. P Hill. 

General A. P, Hill crossed the Chickahominy at the 
Meadow bridges, drove the enemy from their strong 
works in the neighborhood of Mechanicsville, and opened 
a way for, the passage of the river by the rest of the 
forces of General Longstreet, which consisted of Long- 
street's old division and D. H. Hill's division. The next 
day (June 27th) the federal army was driven back to 
Gaines' mill, where a stand was made. A fierce and 
vigorous assault was made upon the enemy's strongly en- 
trenched position in the neighborhood of Gaines' mill, 
and after a desperate struggle, the federals were driven 
from the works. 

Having been forced from his strong position at Gaines' 
mill, General McClellan massed his troops and formed a 
new line of battle at Cold Harbor, intending to make 
there a last stand for the possession of .the north bank of 
the Chickahominy. 

From Gaines' mill, the confederates pressed on towards 
Cold Harbor. They had not been able to use a single 
piece of their artillery in the attack upon Gaines' mill, 
and were 'now advancing without it. The enemy pre- 
sented a formidable appearance. Their force comprised 
the commands of McCall, Porter and Sedgewick, and 
about thirty pieces of artillery. They held a strong po- 
sition at Cold Harbor, and were moving heavy masses of 


troops through the woods for the purpose of surrounding 
the confederates. The were numerically superior to the 
confederate forces, and for a moment it seemed that the 
latter would be overwhelmed. 

The enemy's column approached rapidly through the 
woods. In a short time the confederates would be com- 
pletely outflanked. At this moment a sheet of flame 
burst from the woods before them, and a storm of balls 
swept through the hostile ranks. The enemy paused in 
surprise, while the fatal fire was hurled upon them more 
•fiercely than before. 

A wild and joyful cry rang along the southern lines, 
and the shout of " Jackson ! Jackson !" -was. passed from 
man to man. The conjecture was correct. Two or three 
brigades had been sent on in advance by General Jack- 
son, and had arrived upon the scene of conflict at this 
critical moment. 

Early in the morning General Jackson had taken up 
his line of march for Cold Harbor, moving steadily to- 
wards the Chiekahominy. Ewell led the advance, and 
swept the enemy before him. 

Cold Harbor was reached about five o'clock in the 
afternoon, just as the enemy were endeavoring to crush 
the column of General A. P Hill. The line of battle 
was speedily formed. Whiting was on the right of the 
line ; next came Jackson's, then Ewell's, and then D. 
H. Hill's flivision the last, on the left. Stuart's cav- 
alry were posted to the left of Hill and ordered, to 
prevent the enemy from retreating towards the White 

The rapid firing on the right induced General Jackson 
to suppose that the confederate force in that direction 


was heavily pressed by the enemy, and he immediately 
moved forward with his whole corps. 

As soon as the heavy volleys in the direction of the 
federal rear informed General Lee of the arrival of Gen- 
eral Jackson, General Longstreet's forces were hurried 
forward, and the action became general. 

The limits of this work forbid any further allusion to 
the part borne by the other portions of the army, and, 
for the future, I shall be forced to confine myself simply 
to the operations of General Jackson's command, with 
but an occasional reference to the rest of the troops. 

The federal line in front of General Jackson was very 
strong. The right rested on a ridge, almost parallel to 
the Chickahominy, and the left on a sharp bluff, at the 
foot of which were a deep ravine and two lines of en- 
trenchments. Several batteries of artillery were posted 
on this bluff. Their front was protected by a swamp, 
through which ran a little creek difficult to pass, a thick 
undergrowth, and a quantity of felled timber. 

General Jackson directed* General D. H. Hill to carry 
the federal left. Hill's troops passed across the swamp, 
the creek, the undergrowth and obstructions in front, in 
the face of a heavy fire, and gallantly assailing the 
enemy, forced them to fall back on their reserve. The 
federals made a stand behind a fence and a ditch, and 
posted a battery so as to enfilade Hill's line. The 1st, 
3rd and 20th Ntirth Carolina charged it and took it, and 
Hi]J, now supported by the " Stonewall brigade" under 
General Winder, pressed on. Upon reaching the crest 
of the hill, he was assailed by the whole federal force 
in his front, and the enemy succeeded in recapturing 
their battery. General Hill held with stubborn courage 


the position he had gained, and the battle went on with 
increased fury. 

General Ewell was moving on the right of General 
Hill. He surmounted the obstacles in his way, and 
charged up the hill with impetuosity, driving the enemy 
before him. Soon after he reached the crest of the hill, 
he was reinforced by Lawton's and Trimble's brigades, 
and continued to press the enemy heavily. About dusk 
he was compelled to draw off his troops, having fired 
every round of ammunition in his command.. 

Jackson's old division was originally posted on Swell's 
right, but^its brigades were sent to reinforce other parts 
of the line. 

The Stonewall brigade was marched to the left to Gen- 
eral Hill's support, and bore a conspicuous part in the 
battle. It never wavered, but moved on steadily, press- 
ing the federals back, and had the honor of carrying 
with the bayonet the last position of the enemy — a point 
some three hundred yards beyond McGee's. 

General Wilcox having' called for reinforcements, the 
2nd brigade was sent to him, but reached him too late to 
take part in the battle. The 3rd brigade was sent to 
General Whiting's assistance, but reached him too late. 
The 4th brigade was added to General Ewell's com- 

General Whiting's division held the extreme right of 
the line, and its advance was greeted by the enemy with 
a withering fire, but it pressed forward. Hood's Texans, 
with thrilling cheers, dashed through the ravine, and over 
the ditch and felled timber, and drove the enemy from 
their position. They captured nearly a thousand pris- 
oners, inflicted a heavy loss in tilled and wounded upon 


the enemy, and captured fourteen pieces of artillery. 
Their loss was 1,000 men. 

The movements of Jackson's divisions were simulta- 
neous. They had no artillery in action when the battle 
began. Shortly afterwards Captain John Pelham of the 
Stuart horse artillery, was ordered to take position a 
little beyond Cold Harbor house with one Blakeley and one 
Napoleon gun, and open upon the federal batteries for the 
purpose of drawing a portion of their fire from the troops 
of D. H. Hill and Yv'inder. His position was very near 
the federal batteries, whose heavy guns soon rendered his 
Blakeley gun unfit for service, but he continued to hold 
his ground with his remaining gun, serioiTsly annoying 
the enemy by the steady fire which he maintained in 
spite of their efforts to silence him. Soon afterwards 
additional guns t were sent to the point held by " the 
gallant Pelham," and an effective fire opened on the fe^ 
era-Is, whose replies became feebler and less frequent. 

The night was now setting in, and, General Jackson 
having ordered the troops to " press them with the bayo- 
net," the whole line charged the enemy, whose right was 
now seriously weakened by' the heavy fire of the confede- 
rate batteries. Hood's and the " Stonewall" brigades 
were in advance of the rest of Jackson's line, and drove 
every obstacle before them. The enemy 1 wavered, and 
turning about, fled in confusion towards Grapevine bridge, 
closely pursued by Jackson's men. 

General McClellan's army was routed. Lee, Long- 
street and A. P. Hill had driven it from its entrench- 
ments and forced it back to the position at Cold Harbor. 
Here McClellan thought he could repulse any 'attack 
made upon him, and formed his line with a bright hope 


of success. Alas ! for that hope ! he had been driven 
back from Mechanicsville only to meet with a worse de- 
feat at the hands of Jackson. 

The battle had been a desperate struggle, but the con- 
federate victory was complete. 

The enemy crowded along the bank of the Chick- 
ahominy in confusion and dismay, momentarily expecting 
the confederates to advance upon them. The Southern 
army bivouaced on the battle field, and General McClel- 
lan, having succeeded in restoring order, among his troops, 
withdrew his defeated right wing, during the night, to 
the south bank of the Chickahominy. 

It was now useless to think of attempting, to hold his 
position on the south, side, for such an effort would, ensure 
either the capture or destruction of his army. He had 
but one course to pursue — to seek safety in flight. Two 
routes were open to him ; one down the peninsula, and 
the other through the swamps to the James river. The 
former would be attended with great danger, as he might 
be ruined in another battle. The latter was more favor- 
able to him, as it offered him the means of eluding in the 
thick swamp, the vigilance of his pursuers. He chose 
the route to James river, and after destroying enormous 
quantities of stores of all kinds, and reducing his army 
to the smallest allowance of baggage, began his retreat. 
His" route lay right through the confederate lines, and 
owing to the carelessness or inefficiency of the confederate 
officer charged with the duty of intercepting him, he was 
enabled to pass through in safety. His retreat was con- 
ducted with great skill, but his escape was due to a blun- 
der on the part of the confederates. 

On the 28th, General Jackson sent General Ewell with 


his division and Stuart's cavalry to Dispatch station on 
the York river railroad. Stuart drove off a yankee force 
and Ewell's men destroyed a considerable portion of the 
railroad and the telegraph to the White House. 

Having ascertained that the enemy had not retreated 
towards the Pamunkey, General Ewell moved to Bottom's 
bridge. The next day he rejoined General Jackson's 
command. On the nirht of the 29th, General Jackson 
repaired the Grapevine bridge, by which the federal army 
had retreated acrqss the Chickahominy,' and which they 
had destroyed after them, and marched to Savage station 
on the York river railroad. At this point he se.cured 
about 1,000 stragglers from the federal army and dis- 
covered the immense stores abandoned by them. 

Pushing on, he came up with the enemy the next day 
• at White Oak swamp. The federals had crossed the stream, 
destroyed the bridge, and posted a strong artillery force 
and a detachment of sharpshooters on the opposite side 
to prevent the passage of the stream by the confeder- 
ates. General Jackson moved up a portion of his bat- 
teries and a brisk fight ensued. The enemy fell back at 
night, and General Jackson repaired the bridge and con- 
tinued the pursuit. The next morning he was ordered to 
the front by General Lee. On the afternoon of the same 
day, July 1st, he came up with McClellan at Malvern 
hill. The federal army held a position of exceeding 
great strength, and their artillery was massed upon a 
point from which it could sweep every approach to the 
hill. Major-general Magruder attacked the enenyy on 
the right, and Generarjackson's corps on the left of the 
confederate line in this battle. 

Whiting held the left of Jackson's line, and P. H. 


Hill the right. Taylor's brigade of Swell's division, 
was in the centre in advance of the wings, and the re- 
mainder of Ewell's division was held in reserve in the 
rear of this line. Jackson's old division was held in re- 
serve near Willis' church. 

General D. H. Hill, thinking that a general . advance 
had been ordered by General Lee, moved forward gal- 
lantly to attack the almost impregnable position of the 
enemy. He encountered a stubborn resistance from a 
si^erior force, and was compelled to send for assistance. 
Ewell's reserve and Jackson's old division were ordered 
to him, but owing to the approach of night and the diffi- 
culties presented by the swampy grounds and "thick 
woods through which they had to move, did not reach 
the field in time. to render any aid to Hill, who was forced 
to fall back with heavy loss. The federals now made an 
advance upon Jackson's line, but were driven back by 
the fire of Whiting's artillery on the left, 

Jackson's men slept on their arms in front of the fede- 
ral position. At daylight the next morning, the federal 
army was not to be seen. It had retreated during the 

The attack of Magruder and Jackson upon .Malvern 
hill, had inflicted such a blow upon the federals and had 
demoralized their forces to such a» extent, that General 
McClellan was forced to abandon Malvern hill, which .he 
had determined to hold permanently, not daring to sub- 
ject his army to another attack from the confederates, 
lest it should be utterly ruined. He abandoned the hill 
during the night and fell back to the James river. 

In this battle General Jackson had a very narrow es- 
cape. He was reconnoitering the position of the enemy, 


when a shell fell and exploded between the forelegs of 
his horse, fortunately without injuring either the horse 
or its rider. 

The plan of General Lee, save in one or two instances, 
resulting from the neglect of subordinates, had been suc- 
cessfully, executed. General Jackson had promptly and 
ably seconded him in all his efforts, and the assistance he 
rendered during the brief but eventful campaign of the 
Chickahominy was incalculable. 

General Jackson's loss- in the battles before Richmond 
was as follows : in the battle of Cold Harbor, 589 killed 
and 2,671 wounded ; at Malvern hill, 377 killed and 
1,746' wounded — making a total of 5,383. 

General Jackson was in favor of advancing upon Mc- 
Clellan, and attacking him in his new position, the morn- 
ing after the battle of Malvern hill, but it was deemed 
best by General Lee to refrain from further pursuit. 
The evidence furnished the committee appointed by the 
yankee congress to investigate the conduct of the war, 
proves beyond all possibility of doubt, that an advance 
upon McClellan after the battle of Malvern hill, Avould 
have been a death blow to his army. 

The confederate army remained in front of McClellan 
until the 8th of July, when it fell back nearer to Rich- 

The campaign in lower Virginia was over, and General 
Jackson and his glorious army were now to pass through 
new scenes. 

After being so completely out-generalled by Jackson, 
Fremont was removed from his command in the Valley, 
and succeeded by Major-general John Pope, or as he is 
better known, "Proclamation General Pope." 


The defeat of McClellan's army having put an end to 
the campaign in the peninsula, the federal government 
resolved to make another effort to capture Richmond, by 
advancing General Pope's army from the Rappahannock 
and Rapidan. General Pope moved his forces across the 
mountains and appeared in the neighborhood of the Rapi- 
dan, and thus began his celebrated campaign in "Virginia. 

This General Pope had held, previous to his appear- 
ance in Virginia, the command of a division in the fede- 
ral army under General Halleck, and had rendered him- 
self quite famous by his lying propensities. He was the 
same officer who captured (?) during the retreat of Gene- 
ral Beauregard from Corinth, the ten thousand confede- 
rate soldiers, who so singularly disappeared after their 
capture. It is possible that this brilliant exploit (.') pro- 
cured him the command of Fremont's army. 

From his " headquarters in the saddle," he issued the 
most pompous and absurd proclamations, in which he an- 
nounced that there would be no more "lines of retreat," 
"no more " bases of supplies," no more ditching or in- 
trenching. He boasted, that in his previous career, he 
had not been able to see anything but the u hacks" of 
his enemies, and promised his army a glorious victory 
whenever they should encounter the "rebels." He at 1 
once inaugurated a system of tyranny and oppression 
from which he was driven only by the stern but tardy 
measures of retaliation adopted by the confederate gov- 
ernment. The people and the country in which his army 
was quartered, suffered Severely from the infamous con- 
duct of their "Northern hrcthren"(?) and General Pope 
and his army will ever be remembered in Virginia by the 
shame they ^Yon by their conduct. 


It was necessary to check the advance of General. Pope, 
and also retain at Richmond a sufficient number of troops 
to meet McClcllan, who was supposed to be contempla- 
ting another movement upon the capital. General Jack- 
son was ordered to proceed to the Rapidan and guard the 
country south of that stream against the incursions of 
Pope's army, while General Lee with the rest of the 
army, remained at Richmond. He . arrived at Gprdons- 
ville on the 19th of July with his old division and that 
of General Ewell. Finding; that his force was too small 
to resist the advance of the enemy, General. Jackson 
asked for more troops, and the division of General A. P. 
Hill was sent to him. 

Pope's army was assuming a very threatening atti- 
tude, and General Jackson thought it necessary to attack 
it before it could receive reinforcements. He was in- 
formed that only a part o'f it was at Culpeper courthouse, 
and he determined to fall upon it at once. 

He left Gordonsville on the 7th of August, and moved 
with his army towards the Rapidan, which stream hs 
crossed on -the 8th. The cavalry under General Robert- 
son led the advance, and the infantry followed, Swell's 
division being in front. 

On the morning of the 8th, General Robertson en- 
countered the federal cavalry beyond the Rapidan, and 
drove them back to Culpeper courthouse. The enemy's 
cavalry threatened to cut oil General Jackson's train, 
and to prevent this he sent General Lawton's brigade to 
guard the wagons. 

On the 9th of August, General Jackson resumed, his 
march towards Culpeper courthouse, and encountered the 
enemy at a point eight miles from that place. 


A body of federal cavalry was seen on the right of the 
road by which the confederates were advancing, and was 
driven off by a battery commanded by Lieutenant Terry. 
A battery of the enemy returned this fire, and soon after- 
wards the cavalry resumed their original position. 

Early's brigade was now thrown forward near the road 
to Culpeper courthouse, and General Ewell was ordered 
to move with Trimble's and Hays' brigades, farther to 
the right, passing near the base of Slaughter's mountain. 

In front of Early was a-.hill, which he soon gained, 
driving the federal cavalry before him. In front of his 
new position was another hill, upon which the federal ar- 
tillery was-posted. The valley lying between the two 
forces was open and rugged, and consisted of a cornfield 
with a wheat field to the left, in which the stacks were 
still standing. The opposite hill was wooded. 

As Early reached his new position, the enemy opened 
on him with their artillery, and began to mass their cav- 
alry in the wheat field referred to. General Early moved 
his infantry a little to#he rear, in order to screen them 
from the fire of the federal artillerjr, and threw forward 
on his right and a little in advance, four pieces of artil- 
lery, which opened an effective fire upon the yankee bat- 

General Winder now- came up with Jackson's division, 
and placed Campbell's brigade to the left, in the woods, 
near the wheat field, and Taliaferro's brigade parallel to 
the Culpeper road, with Poague's, Carpenter's and Cas- 
kie's batteries, in front of it. Winder's brigade (the 
" Stonewall") wag held in reserve. 

General Winder had just formed his line, when he was 
mortally wounded by the explosion of a shell. The com- 


mand of the division passed to Brigadier-general Talia- 

While these events were transpiring, General Ewell 
had gained the position to which he had been ordered — the 
northwestern extremity of Slaughter's mountain. He 
placed' Latimer's battery at a point about two hundred 
feet above the valley beneath, and opened a heavy fire 
upon the federal guns, doing them serious damage. 

The artillery duel (in which nearly, all of Jackson's 
batteries were engaged) continued for about two hours — 
the enemy suffering greatly. 

About five o'clock in the afternoon, the enemy ad- 
vanced his skirmishers and moved to the front his in- 
fantry, which until then had been hid in the woods to the 
rear and left of his artillery. Another body of infantry, 
hitherto concealed in the valley by the rolling country, 
advanced towards the point occupied by Early's artillery, 
and upon which his right flank rested. 

The battle between the infantry once opened, soon be- 
came general. & 

General A. P Hill's division now arrived, and General 
Thomas' brigade was sent to General Early's assistance. 

The attack upon Early's position, was intended to cover 
an attempt to. turn the confederate left flank. A heavy 
column of the enemy was hurled upon it, and succeeded 
in driving it back and assailing it fiercely in the rear. 
Campbell's brigade fell back, and the enemy pressing on, 
forced Taliaferro's brigade and a portion of Early's 
troops back from their position. The artillery of Jack- 
son's division being thus exposed, was withdrawn. 

General Jackson's army was now, in great danger of 
being defeated. Dashing to the left, General Jackson, 


usually so calm and cool under all circumstances, threw 
himself between the enemy and his retreating troops, and 
in loud and ringing tones, and all unmindful of the ter- 
rible fire to which he was exposed, commanded the men 
to form again. Reassured by his enthusiasm and hero- 
ism, they rallied. At this moment the old " Stonewall 
brigade" and Branch's brigadeof Hill's division came 
up: Placing himself in front of the line, General Jack- 
son gave his brief, stern order: "Press them with the 
bayonet !" The troops swept forward, drove the ad- 
vancing enemy before them, and re-established the line of 

Archer's and Pender's brigades now came up, and a 
general charge was ordered. The enemy were driven 
with great loss across the valley and into the woods be- 
yond it. 

The federal commander now hurled his. cavalry upon 
Taliaferro's brigade, but they were met with such a galling 
fire from this brigade in front, and branch's brigade as- 
sailed them so' heavily on their flank, that they wheeled 
and fled, having suffered severely. 

The fire of the confederate batteries had forced Gene- 
ral Ewell to remain silent, as an advance on his part 
would have exposed his men to the fire of their friends' 
artillery. When the infantry engagement resulted in the 
repulse oi*the federals, and he could move across the 
valley, he advanced his command and made a spirited 
attack upon the enemy's left. 

The whole line was now pressing heavily upon the 
enemy, and just a'S the moon was rising they gave way 
at all points and abandoned the field, leaving their killed 
and wounded behind them. 


The enemy fell back to a thick wood, about two miles 
in the rear of the battle field. Being anxious to reach 
Culpeper courthouse that night, General Jackson ad- 
vanced his weary troops in pursuit, Hill's division being 
in front. After a march of about a mile and a half, the 
enemy was encountered. 

Pegram's battery, with Fields' brigade for a suppcfrt, 
was thrown forward, and before the enemy were aware of 
its presence, had opened a rapid and effective fire upon 
them. The yankee infantry broke and fled in every di- 
rection. Three federal batteries were thrown forward 
and opened on Pegram, who continued gallantly to main- 
tain his ground, though against such heavy odds, but was 
finally forced to withdraw with severe loss. 

General Jackson, having been informed of the arrival 
of reinforcements for the enemy, ordered a halt for the 

The next morning it became evident that the federal 
army had been largely reinforced, and General Jackson 
concluded not to advance. He made the necessary ar- 
rangements for defending his position, and ordered the 
dead to be buried, the wounded to be sent to the rear, and 
the arms left on the field by the enemy to be collected. 

The day passed off very quietly, the enemy making no 
demonstration, and on the 11th they sent in a flag of 
truce, asking permission to bury their dead, aftd the day 
was spent in performing that duty. 

Having accomplished all that he desired, General Jack- 
son, on the night of the lltb, withdrew his troops and 
retired across the Rapidan. His army lay almost within 
musket range of the enemy, and yet so skilfully and suc- 
cessfully was the retreat effected, that the federals knew 


&o thing of it until the next morning, when they found 
that the Southern forces had disappeared. 

In the battle of Cedar run. the enemy had thirty-two' 
thousand men" engaged, and were commanded by Gene- 
rals Pope, McDowell, Seigel and Banks. They sustained 
a bloody defeat. Their loss was very heavy in killed and 
wounded, and has been estimated at from three to four 
thousand. Certainly it was very severe. General Gor- 
don, commanding one of their brigades, speaks of his 
loss as follows: "I carried into action less than 1,500 
men. I lost in about thirty minutes .466 hilled, wounded 
and missing. *■ * * * As I approached, 
the enemy received me with a rapid and destructive fire. 
For at least thirty minute's this terrible fire continued. 
Companies were left without officers, and men were fall- 
ing in every direction from the -fire of the enemy. * * 
It was too evident that the spot that had witnessed the 
destruction of one brigade, would be, in a few minutes, 
the grave of mine. I had lost more than thirty in every 
hundred of my command." 

General Crawford, another of their officers, says in his. 
report : " The whole woods became one sheet of fire and 
storm of lead. The enemy's infantry was crowded into 
the timber, and into some underbrush at our right, and 
they mowed our poor fellows down like grass. The over- 
whelming numbers of the enemy forced us to fall back, 
but only when not a field officer remained." 

Surely, if the rest of the federal -army suffered in the 
same proportion, the estimate of its losses given above is 
very moderate. The enemy also lost about four hundred 
prisoners, including one of their brigade commanders — 
General Prince — five thousand three hundred and two 


stands of arms, one- Napoleon gun, twelve wagon loads of 
ammunition, and several wagon loads of new clothing. 

The confederate force engaged, consisted of not quite 
three divisions. Its loss was 233 killed* and 1,060 wound- 
ed — making a total of 1,293 men. 

General Jackson sent tlie following despatch to Gene- 
ral Lee's adjutant-general, announcing his victory : 

Headquarters Valley District, 1 
August 11, 6J A. M. j 

Colonel : 

On the evening of the 9th instant God blessed our arms with 
another victory. The battle was near Cedar run, about six miles 
from Culpeper courthouse. The enemy, according to the statement 
of prisoners, consisted of Banks', McDowell's and.Siegel's commands. 
We have over four hundred prisoners, including Brigadier-general 
Prince. Whilst our list of killed is less than that of the enemy, yet 
we have to mourn the loss of some of our best officers' and men. 
Brigadier-general Charles S. Winder was mortally wounded whilst 
ably discharging his duty at the head of his command, which was the 
advance of the left wing of the army. Wo have collected about 
1,500 small arms and other ordnance stores. 

I am, colonel; your pb't serv't, 

T. J. Jacksox, Major-general. 
Col. R. H. Chilton,. A. A. 6. 

Gerieral Pope telegraphed to Washington news of a 
" great victory," but as in the case of the ten thousand 
men taken from Beauregard, he was utterly powerless to 
show any proof of his boasted achievements. 

Being satisfied that the enemy were evacuating their 
position on the Jain§s river, and that the army of Gene- 
ral McClellan would be sent to the assistance of General 
Pope, General Lee no longer felt any hesitation in re- 
moving his army from Richmond. By the 17th of Au- 
gust he had assembled on the- Rapidan a force of suffi- 


ci'ent strength to enable him to commence operations 
against Pape. It was necessary for him to act with 
promptness. The corps' of General Burnside had been 
■moved up to Aquia creek, and- McClellan's army was 
leaving .the James river. He must fight Pope before 
these forces could reach him. The plan he adopted was 
a bold one, and attended with considerable risk. 
But the situation of the country at the time was such as 
to require boldness and promptness. 

With the bulk of the army, General Lee would ad- 
Vance and engage General Pope in front and towards his 
flanks, while General Jackson's corps was to cross the. 
mountains, get into Pope's rear, and then marching to 
Manassas, seize his. lines of communication with Wash- 
ington and cut off his supplies. The movement assigned 
to General Jackson. was attended with great risk, as the 
enemy might, at any time, by a rapid change of position, 
cut him off from the army of General Lee, and derange 
the whole plan of the campaign. Resolving, however, to 
put this. plan into execution, and feeling assured that he 
could place the fullest reliance. upon General Jackson's 
ability to execute his portion of it, General Lee began 
to prepare for the campaign. . • .; 

The army now advanced to Orange courthouse, and 
General Pope, suspicious* of danger, retreated across the 
Rappahannock. This movement caused some modifica- 
tion'of General Lee's plan of operations. « 

General Jackson was ordered to gain Pope's rear, and 
cut him off from Washington, while General Lee, by 
making a series of feints in the federal commander's 
front, would draw his attention from the movement of 
General. Jackson. 


On the 20th of August, General Jackson crossed the 
Rapidan about eight miles northeast of Orange court- 
house, and on the evening of the 21st reached Beverly's 
ford, six miles west of Brandy station on the Orange and 
Alexandria railroad. At' this point a considerable force 
of the enemy occupied the left bank of the river. The 
next day was spent in skirmishing with them ; and late 
in the day the march was resumed, and on the 28rd of 
August General Jackson appeared on the bank of the 
•Rappahannock at the little village of Jeffersonton, oppo- 
site the Warrenton springs in Fauquier county. General 
Early's brigade was thrown across the river, but the 
stream swelling with great rapidity, (owing to heavy rains 
having fallen recently), the rest of the troops were unable 
to cross. The situation of Early was perilous in. the ex- 
treme ; but the enemy did not take advantage of it. The 
next evening the bridge over the Rappahannock, which 
the enemy had destroyed, having been completed, Gene- 
ral Ewell crossed over with Lawton's brigade to Early's 
assistance. The federals hurriedly massed large bodies 
of troops at the springs to resist the advance of the con- 
federates. During the night the brigades of Early and 
Lawton recrossed the river and rejoined the main column. 

By hi3 rapid movements along the river, General Jack- 
son had induced the enemy to believe that he contem- 
plated a passage of it near the springs : had perplexed 
ifhem greatly in their efforts to discover the true point 
where he wished to cross the stream, and had drawn off 
a large body of troops from the main column. The di- 
vision of General R. H. Anderson, having come up from 
Gordonsville, was left to watch and amuse the enemy, 
who remained drawn up in line of battle at Warrenton 


springs all day on Monday 25th. General Jackson, on 
the. morning of the 25lh, pushed on up the river towards 
Flint hill, in the county of Rappahannock. The enemy 
hearing that a large force of confederates was moving 
towards the mountains, supposed it was the division of 
General Ewell making a demonstration to cover the re- 
treat of Jackson, who was* believed to be falling back to 
Gordonsville. » 

When the army Imd passed the little village of Amis- 
ville, it wheeled suddenly to the rightf and moving rap- 
idly over a rugged and unused road, crossed the Rappa- 
hannock at Hinson's ford, about fifteen miles above War- 
renton springs. The passage of the stream was exceed- 
ingly difficult, and might have been successfully resisted 
by the enemy, but they had no force there. Avoiding 
the hills, and marching across fields and lanes, the corps 
halted for the night near the town of Salem, in Fauquier 
county, a station on the Manassas gap railroad. The 
army reached it at midnight, and was on the march again 
at daybreak. General Jackson had now turned the right 
flank of the enemy, and was rapidly gaining his rear. 

The next morning, the 26th, the march was resumed 
in the direction of Thoroughfare gap, where the Manas- 
sas gap railroad passes' through the Bull run mountains. 
Here General Jackson expected to. encounter a portion 
of the federal troops. Fortunately this strong pass, 
which a small force of brave men might have held against 
his whole army, -had been left unguarded, and there was 
nothing to oppose the march of the confederates. Moving 
his army rapidly through the gap, General Jackson hur- 
ried on in the direction of Gainesville, which he reached 
late in the day. 

-fl CJ 


General Pope has declared, in his official report, that 
he was, from the first, fully aware, of all Jackson's move- 
ments.. If this be true, Generar Pope must have been 
the greatest simpleton upon record. He left his rear 
entirely unprotected,, and made no effort •'whatever to re- 
sist the progress of Jackson, which, he says, was so well 
known to him, and so " carefully noted." A mere hand- 
ful of men could have checked, if they could not have 
prevented, Jackson's advance at aj least half a dozen 
points. The trrgdi is, however, that the movements of 
Generel Jackson were so rapid, and the operations of the 
cavalry under General Stuart, between his corps and the 
enemy, so completely covered those movements, that 
General Pope was entirely ignorant of them, until Gene- 
ral Jackson had fully gained his rear. 

Arriving at Gainesville, the corps wheeled to the right 
and marched to Bristow station, on the Grange and Alex- 
andria railroad,, which was reached after night. The 
small force and the military stores left there by the enemy 
were captured. Several trains of cars returning to 
Washington were also captured. One, however, suc- 
ceeded in getting by and telegraphed the alarm from 
Manassas to Alexandria. Those coming from the oppo- 
site direction returned and gave the alarm. 

Learning that the enemy had established a large depot 
of supplies at Manassas, General Jackson ordered Gene- 
rals Trimble and Stuart to proceed thither at once and 
occupy the place. By midnight they reached Manassas, 
and captured the entire force stationed there. At Ma- 
nassas junction the enemy had established an immense 
depot of supplies. The confederates' captured an exten- 
sive bakery, (which was capable of turning out 15,000 


loaves of bread daily;) several thousand barrels of flour ; 
large quantities of corn and oats ; two thousand barrels 
of pork; one thousand barrels of beef; fifty thousand 
pounds of bacon ; several trains of cars with large loads 
of stores ; and ten first class locomotives. 

The next day, the 27th, after leaving General Ewell at 
Bristow, General Jackson occupied Manassas with the 
rest of his corps. # 

The federal authorities .at Washington, upon receiving 
information of the capture of Manassas, supposed that it 
had been done by a small force, and looked upon the 
affair as a mere raid. A New Jersey brigade, composed 
of five regiments, under Brigadier-general Taylor, was 
sent from Alexandria " to chase the rebels away." *The 
brigade left the cars at Bull run bridge, about 11 o'clock 
on the morning of the 27th, and moved rapidly towards 
the junction. They were allowed to approach within a 
few hundred yards of the fortifications around the junc- 
tion; not having met with any enemy save a line of skir- 
mishers, who retired before them. As they came within 
range of the heavy guns, a rapid fire was opened upon 
them, driving them back to a ridge of hills, which shel- 
tered them from the fatal storm. Throwing forward his 
infantry, General Jackson drove them from their place 
of, refuge back^ to Bull run. Crossing that stream at 
Blackburn's ford, they fled 'towards Centreville, hotly 
pursued by the cavalry and horse artillery of General 
Stuart, which inflicted great. loss' upon them. The pur- 
suit was continued beyond Centreville, the enemy flying 
in the wildest confusion. The brigade was almost anni- 
hilated. General Taylor was wounded, and so was nearly 
every officer in his command. 


General Heintzelman's corps of McClellan's army had 
reached General Pope's lines, and lay at Rappahannock 
station, when news was received of the capture of Bris- 
tow. General Heintzelman had been informed that a 
"■raid" had been made upon the railroad, but he saga- 
ciously judged that the movement must be one of great 
magnitude, and at once advanced with his whole corps to- 
wards Bristow. A sharp engagement ensued late in the 
day, in which the enemy were repulsed with considerable 
loss, and forced back for some distance. The officer in 
immediate. command of jthe enemy during the attack, was 
General Joseph Hooker. 

Not wishing to expose his troops to the danger of being 
separated when the enemy should advance upon him, 
General Jackson had ordered General Ewell occupy 
his position until the enemy should make their appear- 
ance, and then to check their progress and rejoin the 
main body of the corps at Manassas. Having checked 
the advance of the enemy, General Ewell withdrew his 
troops during the night and rejoined General Jackson. 

In the meantime, General Lee having been informed 
of the success of Jackson's movements, had advanced 
with the remainder of the army to his assistance, intend- 
ing to throw his entire force in the enemy's rear. Long- 
street's corps, which had been amusing the enemy during 
Jackson's march, now swept around from the river and 
marched towards Thoroughfare gap. 

Startled by the news that General Jackson had gained 
his rear, General Pope awoke to a sense of his danger, 
and prepared to meet it. General Jackson was in .the 
very heart of the country occupied by the federal troops, 
cut off, for the time, from all assistance from the army of 


General Lee, and in danger of being completely hemmed 
in by the dense masses of the enemy. His situation was 
desperate, and to a commander of less genius, might have 
been fatal. General Pope saw this and resolved to en- 
deavor to profit by it. Sending Eickett's division to 
occupy and hold Thoroughfare gap, and thus prevent 
Jackson from receiving any assistance or effecting a re- 
treat through it, be moved up from Fauquier with his 
army, for the purpose of forcing his way through Jack- 
son's line, and recovering his communications with Wash- 
ington. The federal army had been reinforced by a por- 
tion of the troops of General McClellari, and the rest of 
that army was on the Potomac and on its way to join 
Pope. Relying upon his great strength, General Pope 
moved forward with rapidity. His column was advan- 
cing upon the front of General Jackson, McClellan's 
troops were approaching in his rear, and Burnside, who 
was advancing from Fredericksburg, was marching upon 
his flank. General Jackson's situation was now perilous 
in the extreme. His forces did not consist of more than 
20,000 men, and these were almost broken down by their 
extraordinary marches, and his supply of food was very 
short, not exceeding rations for a day and a half. His 
train was sixty miles off, having been unable to keep up 
with him in his advance. The head of General Long- 
street's cqlumn had only arrived at the westerly extremity 
of Thoroughfare gap, thirty miles distant, and between 
that column and his own was a federal force of 90,000 
men. The enemy had occupied the gap, and it was by 
no means certain that. General Longstreet would be able 
to force a passage through it. In this critical situation 
General Jackson could choose between only two alterna- 


tives : either to fight' the enemy and endeavor to hold 
them in check until General Longstreet could come up, 
or to retreat to the Valley of Virginia by ay ay of Gen- 
treville and Leesburg. If he chose the former, he would 
have to encounter the danger of being overwhelmed and 
cut to pieces before Longstreet could come up ; if the 
latter, to run the risk of having his retreat intercepted 
by the column which was approaching from Alexandria. 
In either case his condition would be extremely perilous. 
The enemy were closing in upon him, and it was neces- 
sary for 1 him to decide at once. The darker the clouds 
seemed to close around the heroic general, the more bril- 
liantly did his genius shine out above them, and never 
was this more strikingly exemplified than at this moment. 
Without hesitation he resolved to meet the enemy and 
resist the advance. As soon as General Ewell's division 
rejoined him, he set fire to the depot and stores captured 
at Manassas, and moved off m the direction of Bull run, 
the darkness of the night covering his movements. Upon 
reaching Bull run, he halted and formed his line near the 
Sudley church, almost on the very spot that had witnessed 
the heroic struggle of the 21st July 1861. By this move- 
ment he brought his forces much nearer to the main body 
of the enemy under General Pope, but at the same time 
shortened the distance between himself and General 
Longstreet. In this position he could fight the enemy 
the next claj-, and if General Longstreet could be suc- 
cessful in forcing a passage through Thoroughfare gap, 
he could fall upon the enemy and assist General Jackson. 
Or if he should be forced to retreat, he had uoav an open 
way by wdiich he could move into the Valley. His troops 
marched all night over a rough and rugged country. The 

THOMAS J. JAC'KS'(\N. 139 

morning of Thursday, the 28th of July, found them drawn 
up along the banks of Bull run, weary and hungry, and 
awaiting the advance of the enemy. It seemed that they 
had caught the spirit of their leader, for in spite of their 
sufferings, they uttered not a murmur , but eagerly awaited 
the coming conflict. The right of the line was composed 
of the 1st division (General Jackson's old division) under 
General Taliaferro ; the centre of A. P. Hill's division, 
while Ewell held the left ; the troops facing Manassas 

In order to reopen his communications with Washing- 
ton, it was necessary for General Pope to get his army 
across Bull run and defeat General Jackson. The route 
he had chosen for the retrograde movement of his army, 
was over the Stone bridge and the Sudley ford, and Gen- 
eral Jackson now occupied a position directly in his path. 

Early on the morning of the 28th, the cavalry under 
General Stuart, encountered the enemy's .cavalry near 
Gainesville on the Warrenton turnpike, and drove them 
back. Later in the day, the 2nd brigade of the 1st di- 
vision, under Colonel Bradley Johnson, again repulsed 
them. A heavy column, under Seigel and McDowell, 
was now advancing upon Jackson's position, and a des- 
perate encounter was near at hand. General Jackson at 
once ordered General Taliaferro to advance with his di- 
vision and attack them. Ewell and A. P. Hill were to 
follow him, and engage the enemy when they came up 
with them. General Taliaferro had gone about three 
miles, when he found that the enemy had abandoned the 
Sudley road and were advancing upon him from the War- 
renton turnpike. General Jackson at once moved up his 
other divisions and formed his line near the little village 


of Groveton ; his right resting above and near the vil- 
lage, and his left upon the old battle field of Manassas. 
The action began at five, o'clock in the afternoon, the 
enemy making the attack in several heavy columns. It 
was opened by an artillery combat at long range, but 
gradually the distance between the two armies shortened, 
and by six o'clock they were within easy musket range 
of each other. A furious attack was made upon*fclie di- 
vision of General Taliaferro, and gallantly and success- 
fully, repulsed. Hill and Ewell now came into action, 
and the battle became general along the whole line. The 
federal troops had been informed by their commanders, 
that Jackson had been " caught in a complete trap" with 
a small force, and that it was only necessary to make a 
determined effort, to annihilate him. Inspired by this 
thought, they fought with great desperation. Several 
times they advanced to force the Southern lines with the 
bayonet, but each time were driven back with terrific fury. 
Night came on, but the battle continued to rage furiously. 
Gradually the enemy fell back. Finally they abandoned 
the field, and by nine o'clock the battle Avas over, General 
Jackson remaining in undisputed possession of the field, 
having successfully repulsed the enemy at all points. 

Although the battle had been so severe, General Jack- 
son's loss was small in proportion .to that of the enemy, 
being between 800 and 1,000 killed and wounded. But 
among these were Generals Trimble and Taliaferro, two 
gallant officers wounded, and the brave old Ewell, whose 
presence was a tower of strength to the army, lost a leg. 

The enemy's loss has never been accurately ascertained, 
but was very heavy. 

The night passed away in silence, and the troops, 


Wearied by fatigue and hunger, spent it in resting upon 
their arms, awaiting the renewal of the conflict the next 

While the battle was going on near Groveton, stirring 
events were transpiring in another direction. 

As soon as General Jackson had gained Pope's rear, 
General Longstreet had been ordered to move with speed 
to his assistance. He reached Thoroughfare gap late on 
the 27th of August, and found it occupied by the enemy. 

Thoroughfare gap is an abrupt opening in the range of 
the Bull run "mountains. Its width varies from one hun- 
dred to two hundred yards. A swift mountain stream 
rushes through the pass, and along its bank winds a rug- 
ged -and difficult road and the track of the Manassas gap 
railroad. On the left hand the mountains rise up per- 
pendicularly, and on the right the thick timber and un- 
dergrowth render it impossible for any but the most active 
men to obtain a foothold upon it. The famous pass of 
Thermopylae sinks into insignificance when compared 
with this in strength. That pass was turned by a moun- 
tain road ; this had no such wea-k point. The force of 
the enemy occupying it, consisted of General Eickett's 
division and several batteries of artillery. 

In spite of the great advantages possessed by the 
enemy, General Longstreet resolved to drive them from 
the gap, and pass his troops through it. On the morning 
of the 28th, he moved forward and engaged them, and 
during the day succeeded in driving their entire force 
from the pass. With the thunder of the guns at Grove- 
ton ringing in their ears, the gallant Southerners emerged 
from the gap, on the eastern side, and bore away towards 


The passage of Thoroughfare gap was one of the most 
brilliant exploits of the campaign, and reflects the highest 
credit upon the gallant general and brave men who effected 
it. It was accomplished with a loss of only three men 

Upon arriving within supporting distance of General 
Jackson, General Longstreet moved to the neighborhood 
of Sudley church and took position on the left. The 
plan of General Lee was now nearly accomplished. He 
had moved his entire army around the enemy and had 
gotten into their rear. The army had endifred hardships 
and privations innumerable, but these, so far from de- 
pressing it, had inspired it with an enthusiasm that was 

The morning of the 29th of August dawned beauti- 
fully over the scenes of such fearful strife. General 
Jackson's corps occupied a position a little in advance of 
that which it had held during the previous evening. All 
of General Longstreet's forces had not yet come up, and 
his line was not completely formed. Later in the day 
all the troops were present, and the lines fully estab- 

Early in the morning the enemy made a feeble attack 
upon General Ewell's division, and were quickly repulsed 
with great slaughter. The confederate artillery opening 
upon them in their flight, added greatly to their suffer- 
ings. About four o'clock in the afternoon, General Pope 
made a desperate attempt to force the Southern lines 
asunder, and effect a passage through them. The attack 
was made upon the command of General Jackson, and 
soon afterwards extended along the whole line. General 
Lee, late in the afternoon, seeing that the enemy were 


receiving strong reinforcments, ordered General Hood 
(of Longstreet's corps) to move with his division, and 
make a demonstration upon their right. Hood moved up 
rapidly and soon became -warmly engaged with the enemy, 
and when the battle closed, had driven them three-quar- 
ters of a mile. This movement compelled the federal 
commander to change his line very materially. 

Profiting by this assistance, General Jackson advanced 
his troops with great energy. The battle raged hotly on 
both wings of the army, and the .enemy fought with great 
vigor. About nine o'clock they fell back sullenly and 
left the confederate forces in possession of the field. 

During the fight the ammunition of Jackson's men 
gave out. They held their ground, - however, defending 
themselves with pieces of rock -which lay thickly along 
their position. To supply their lack of ammunition, the 
cartridge boxes of wounded and dead friends and foes 
were secured and emptied, and their contents passed 
along the line. 

When. Hood came into the fight, Jackson's men were 
being slowly pressed back by the overwhelming masses 
thrown upon them. Hood's charge gave them an oppor- 
tunity to recover their lost ground, and they were quick 
to avail themselves of it. 

The confederate loss was small in proportion to the 
number engaged and the fierceness of the conflict: The 
enemy acknowledged a loss of eight thousand killed and 
wounded. The Northern papers estimated the losses in 
Pope's army, in the various conflicts previous to the 29th, 
at nine thousand men, making in ail a total of seventeen 
thousand men. 

During the night, General Lee ordered the troops to 


fall back nearer to Manassas plains, intending to take 
position there and offer the enemy battle the next day. 
The night was spent by the troops in occupying the po- 
sitions assigned them. They were greatly in need of 
rest, and very much weakened by abstinence from food, 
and yet in this weak and exhausted condition, they were 
on the morrow to fight the greatest battle that had yet 
been fought in America. 

The morning of the ever memorable 30th of August 
came at last. The confederate army now occupied a po- 
sition different from any it had yet held. The line of 
battle extended for over five miles, and was in the form 
of an. obtuse crescent. Jackson's corps held the left, 
and his line extended from the Sudley ford, on Bull run, 
along the partly excavated track of the Manassas inde- 
pendent line of railroad for a portion of the way, and 
thence towards a point on the Warrenton turnpike about 
a mile and a half west of Groveton. The 1st division 
(now commanded by General Starke) was on the right ; 
Ewell's division (under General Lawton) in the centre, 
and A. P Hill on 'the left. From Jackson's right, ex- 
tended Longstreet's line, which formed the right. wing of 
the army, stretching beyond the Manassas gap railroad. 
In the centre, between Jackson's and Longstreet's lines, 
a strong force of artillery was posted upon an eminence 
which commanded a large portion of the field. 

The enemy, in order to engage General Lee, had now 
to conform his line to that of the Southern army. Con- 
sequently the federal line took the form of a crescent, 
the centre (greatly advanced) being at Groveton, and the 
wings inclining obliquely to the right and left. General 
Heintzelmuii held the federal riHit and General McDowell 


tlie left, while the corps of General Fitz John Porter and 
Seigel, and Reno's division of Burnside's army, formed 
the centre. 

Thus the advantage lay with General Lee. The con- 
federate army (especially the corps of General Jackson) 
occupied the ground upon which the enemy fought the 
first battle of Manassas, and the federal army the ground 
held by the confederates that day — the positions of the 
two armies on the 21st being completely reversed on the 
present occasion. 

The federal artillery was posted on the hills, in the 
rear of their infantry. 

About 12 o'clock M. the battle was opened between 
the artillery of the two armies — the enemy making the 
attack. The firing Avas very rapid, and was kept up with 
great spirit. 

A little after two o'clock the enemy advanced a strong 
column of infantry and began a spirited attack upon 
General Jackson's line. Advancing under the cover of 
a heavy fire of artillery to "within musket range of the 
Southern lines, they opened a rapid fire, which was re- 
sponded to with fatal effect. Shortly after this a second 
column of the enemy, and then a third, advanced to sup- 
port the first. Jackson's infantry hurled a deadly fire 
upon them, and unable to endure it, they repeatedly 
broke and ran, and it required all of the efforts of their 
officers to rally them again. Jackson's artillery was now 
moved to the left, and a destructive fire was opened upon 
the federal columns. The battle was going on hotly, and 
the infantry were doing effective service, while the fire of 
the artillery was terrific. Shot and shell tore through 
the federal rankb at each discharge, bringing down scores 



to the ground, breaking the line of the enemy and throw- 
ing them into confusion. The order was given to charge, 
and the infantry sweeping down with great force, drove 
the bewildered foe from the field at the point of the 
bayonet. Thus, in half an hour, the forces of Generals 
Sykes and Morell, the most celebrated corps of the fede- 
ral army, were driven in confusion from the field by a 
smaller force of confederates. 

General Jackson's line, which, it, will be remembered, 
extended from Bull run to the Warrenton turnpike, had 
been considerably advanced during this brief engagement. 
His left, which had pushed forward more rapidly than his 
right, had moved around by the Pittsylvania house, and 
was forcing the enemy towards the turnpike and driving 
them down upon General Longstreet's position ; thus 
clearly demonstrating the wisdom of General Lee's for- 
mation of his line of battle. 

Longstreet was not slow to perceive his advantage. 
His troops were at once thrown forward, and now the 
whole line was advancing upon the enemy. The federals 
were being heavily reinforced, end dense masses of fresh 
troops were rapidly brought into action. Dashing upon 
the exposed left flank of the enemy, which was in front 
of him, General Longstreet, in spite of this, drove them 
furiously before him. While Longstreet outflanked and 
drove the enemy on the left, Jackson pressed heavily upon 
their right. The two wings of the crescent line were 
gradually drawing nearer together and enclosing the 
enemy between them. Sweeping upon them in those ir- 
resistible charges which have become so famous, the vet- 

erans of Jackson and Longstreet broke the federal col- 
s' . 

umns and chased them from the field . Dashing on, at 


the head of his troops, with his whole soul glowing with 
the genius of battle, General Jackson exhibited the 
greatest heroism. Under the guidance of such a general, 
and stimulated by such an example, it is no wonder that 
his troops were invincible. 

Long after darkness the battle raged, the enemy being 
driven at all points, and after nine o'clock they aban- 
doned the field and fled ingloriously across Bull run. So 
rapid was their flight, that it was impossible for the eon- 
federates to keep up with them. 

General Pope abandoned his wounded without making 
any provision for them. They were kindly cared for by 
the confederate commander, until the federals could attend 
to them. 

The enemy's loss in this second battle of Manassas 
was very heavy. The confederate loss was much less, 
but at present unknown to me. It has been said, and I 
am convinced of the truth of the assertion, that the 
enemy's losses on the 27th, -28th, 29th and 30th of Au- 
gust, numbered thirty -five thousand men. 

A scanty allowance of food — the first they had eaten 
for four days, Avas issued to the army on the morning of 
the 31st. It consisted of beef without bread. 

The enemy now occupied the heights of Centreville 
and Germantown, and from these General Lee resolved 
to dislodge them. General Jackson was ordered to turn 
their right flank. He set out at two o'clock in the after- 
noon, and at night encamped in Pleasant valley, fifteen 
miles from the battle field. Here, for the first time since 
the march began on the 25th, the men enjoyed an unbro- 
ken night's rest, and here again they were compelled to 
go without food. 



On the next day, (September J st), upon nearing the 
federal lines, General A. P Hill's division was attacked 
by the enemy, who wished to protect the removal of their 
trains from Centreville to Alexandria. The battle was 
fought at Germantown, a small village in Fairfax county, 
near the main road from Centreville to Fairfax courthouse. 
The federal troops having been rallied by their comman- 
ders, marched out from Centreville and fell upon Hill's 
division, which constituted Jackson's advance. After a 
short, but desperate fight, they were routed and driven in 
confusion towards Alexandria, losing many of their num- 
ber and all of their artillery. Generals -Kearney and 
Stevens were killed — the former left dead on the field. 
The confederate loss was very slight. 

In this brief campaign, the enemy lost upwards of 
thirty-five thousand men killed, wounded and prisoners, 
many millions of dollars worth of stores and other pro- 
perty, over thirty pieces of cannon, and many small arms. 
The confederate loss was abeut six thousand men. The 
enemy had been driven into the lines of Washington, and 
were now trembling for the safety of their capital. The 
campaign had been, in every respect, brilliant and suc- 

On Tuesday, 2nd of September, the corps of General 
Longstreet came up, and the army for the first time en- 
joyed a full allowance of food. 

Having driven the enemy within the lines of Washing- 
ton, General Lee resolved to cross the Potomac and enter 
Maryland. Several motives have been attributed to him 
by the press and public, as inducing him to take this step. 
The principal of these are — 1st, that he wished to libe- 
rate and hold the state of Maryland, believing that the 


condition of affairs warranted such a step. Second, that 
he simply wished to capture the column of federal troops 
stationed at Harper's Ferry. Much fruitless discussion 
has been engaged in by the friends of these opposite 
propositions, and it may seem out of place to mention 
them here, but for the completeness of this narration it 
will be necessary to refer to them briefly. This I shall 
do further on, simply stating here that I accept the lat- 
ter proposition as embodying the true reason of General 
Lee for crossing the Potomac. 

On the 3d of September, General Jackson moved off 
from Germantown in the direction of Leesburg, and halted 
for the night at Drainesville. He reached Leesburg the 
next day. On Friday, the 5th of September, he crossed 
the Potomac, and took the way to Frederick city in 

The passage of the Potomac was thrilling beyond de- 
scription. The men sprang forward with wild and en- 
thusiastic cheers, and were soon over the river and upon 
the shores of the United States. Each man felt himself 
the avenger of a wronged and outraged state, and believed 
that he came to offer to a gallant but enslaved people the 
prescious boon of liberty. Their anticipations were, how- 
ever, soon checked by the very cool reception with which 
they were met. They had believed that men would come 
crowding into their ranks, and that the. whole population 
would receive them with open arms. They had entered 
tfte worst portion of the state, and consequently ought 
not to have entertained' such bright hopes. Western 
Maryland, like Western Virginia, was too thoroughly at- 
tached to the Union to hail with delight the advance of a 
Southern army. It comprised but a very smajl portion 


of the state, and all persons who believed then that Gen- 
eral Lee desired to liberate Maryland, beheld with regret 
"his entrance into that portion of it. The friends of the 
South were, with a few exceptions, all east of Frederick 
county, and the friends of the Union, in and west of it. 
The few Southern men in the section occupied by the 
confederate array, not knowing the nature of the invasion, 
Mere afraid to act at once. To those who know how 
much they had to dread from the tyranny of the federal 
government, this will not seem strange. 

Before reaching Frederick city, General Jackson was 
presented with a magnificent gray charger. This act, 
which was prompted by the most enthusiastic admiration 
for the general, came very near proving fatal to him, for 
he had scarcely mounted the horse before the animal be- 
came frightened, threw him, and came near breaking his 

On Saturday, the 6th of September, the army entered 
Frederick city. Here they were permitted to purchase 
such articles as they wanted, for confederate money. On 
Monday confederate money was refused, and the prices 
of articles advanced. The troops most scrupulously 
avoided interfering with the inhabitants, and every right 
they possessed was most faithfully respected. Persons 
of known hostility to the South ware treated with great 
kindness — the conduct of the confederate army being in 
marked contrast with that of the federal forces, when oc- 
cupying Southern territory. • 

On the 8th of September, General Lee issued his pro- 
clamation, inviting the people of Maryland to rise in de- 
fence of their homes and liberties. This, however, was 
impossible, for reasons Avhich will be stated further on. 


Only about eight hundred recruits were obtained during 
this campaign. 

On Wednesday, the 10th of September, the army 
moved forward towards Ilagerstown. The greatest ex- 
citement now prevailed among the troops. They thought 
they Mere advancing into Pennsylvania, and stimulated 
by the prospect of visiting upon the enemy in his own 
country some of the horrors that had been perpetrated 
upon the South, they pushed on with the greatest delight. 
At night the corps of General Jackson halted at Boons- 
boro', on the national road, ten miles from Ilagerstown, 
while a small party of cavalry, for the purpose of divert- 
ing the enemy's attention, made a raid into Pennsylvania. 

The whole North was now thrown into a perfect fever 
• . . i 

of excitement. The invasion of Maryland had filled the 

entire Union with the greatest surprise and terror, and 
these feelings were heightened by the advance of General 
Lee in the direction of Ilagerstown. It was rumored 
that Jackson was entering Pennsylvania by at least a 
dozen different directions. The routed forces of General 
Pope had crowded in confusion into the lines of Wash- 
ington, and mutinous and demoralized, refused to fight 
again under that general. There was but one man who 
could brino; order out of such confusion, and that man 
"was General McGlellan. 

JNothinfr in the history of the war is more singular than 
the influence possessed by General McClellan over his 
troops. During the entire period in which he held the 
command of the federal army, he was never successful in 
any of his undertakings. lie was defeated in every 
pitched battle, and in a majority of the minor engage- 
ments; driven with loss and in dismay from the Chicka- 

io2 lilEi'f EKANT-GKJS'LilAi 

hominy to the James, and outgeneralled upon every occa- 
sion. Yet in spite of all these misfortunes/ the confi- 
dence which his troops reposed in him never wavered, 
and his influence over them never diminished. Undoubt- 
edly he was the most skilful commander the armies of 
the Union 'could boast of, but he had the misfortune to 
contend against Lee,' Johnston and Jackson. 

The failure of the Peninsula campaign had placed Gen- 
eral McClellan in bad repute with his government, and 
it was with great reluctance that they summoned him to 
the command of the army again. Yielding to the neces- 
sity of the occasion, they removed General Pope and 
placed General McClellan at the head of the .army once 
more. Hastily reorganizing the remnants of Pope's 
army, and leaving a strong force for 'the protection of 
Washington city, General McClellan advanced towards 
Frederick for the purpose of engaging the army of Gen- 
eral Lee. The skill exhibited by him in this movement 
won for him considerable praise both North and South. 
His object in hastening after General Lee was to prevent 
the invasion of Pennsylvania, or, if necessary, to relieve 
Harpers Ferry, and by throwing his army between that 
of General Lee and the Potomac, to cut off his retreat 
into Virginia. 

Having resolved upon the capture of Harpers Ferry, 
General 'Lee began to put his plan into operation. The 
approach of General McClellan, which was reported to 
him, rendered it necessary to act with great promptness. 
The army was divided into three portions — Jackson's and 
Longstreet's corps, and a strong force under Major-gene- 
ral D. H. Hill. The column of General D. H. Hill was 
to occupy the passes of the South mountain and hold 



McClellan in check, while Jackson would reeross the Po- 
tomac and capture Harpers Ferry. The corps of General 
Longstreet would remain within supporting distance of 
both Jackson and Hill, and render assistance to either 
as necessitv might renuire. 

On Thursday morning (the 11th September) the corps 
of General Jackson left Boonsboro' and continued to ad- 
vance in the direction of Hagerstown. Upon reaching 
a point about a mile beyond Boonsboro' it suddenly 
wheeled to the left and marched to the Potomac, which 
was crossed at Williamsport. On the 12th, the corps 
entered Martinsburg. The federal forces stationed there 
had retired to Harpers Ferry, upon hearing of the ap- 
proach of the confederates. After halting for a few 
hours to refresh his men,. General Jackson hurried on in 
the direction of Harpers Ferry, and at noon on the 18th, 
encamped about three miles from that place. 

While the corps of General Jackson was to attack 
Harpers Ferry from the direction of Bolivar, the division 
of General McLaws was to occupy the Maryland heights, 
and General Walker's forces to hold those on the Lou- 
doun side of the bhenancloah, thus completely hemming 
in the federal forces. 

As soon as he reached the point at which he halted, 
General Jackson signalled the heights opposite him in 
order to ascertain whether the other forces had come up; 
No reply was received ; and during the day the, signals 
were repeated, but still remained unanswered, and it was 
feared that the attempt to occupy the heights had failed. 
It was known that General McClellan was rapidly ap- 
proaching the army of General Lee, and it was necessary 
that the works at Harpers Ferry should be carried a; 



once. The day and the night passed away in painful 
Suspense. The morning of the 14th came, and the sig- 
nals we're repeated. An answer was returned from the 
Loudoun heights ; Walker had reached his position ; but 
nothing was heard from McLaws. Later in the day the 
signals were again repeated, and McLaws answered from 
the Maryland heights. He had succeeded, after encoun- 
tering numerous difficulties, in reaching and occupying 
the heights, driving the federal force stationed there into 
the town of Harpers Ferry. General Jackson advanced 
his troops and invested the town. His line was drawn 
completely around it, from the Potomac to the Shenan- 
doah. A. P Hill's division held the right, Swell's the 
centre, and the 1st (Jackson's) the left. Thus the enemy 
were completely enclosed within the Southern lines. 

In order to make a more effectual resistance, the enemy 
abandoned a number of outworks and retired within their 
principal defences on Bolivar heights, and the troops- of 
General Jackson at once occupied the abandoned works. 

It was now very late in the day, and General Jackson 
resolved to defer the final assault until, the next morning. 
At night he sent to Generals McLaws and Walker orders 
to open their fire upon the town the next morning at 
sunrise, accompanying them with the following charac- 
teristic message : 

" I have occupied and now hold the enemy's first line 
of entrenchments, and, with the blessing of God, will 
capture the whole force early in the morning." 

At sunrise on the morning of the 15th of September, 
a heavy cannonade was opened upon the enemy's works 
from all quarters. It was responded to feebly. A little 
before ten o'clock, General Jackson ordered General A, 


P Hill to advance with his division and storm the federal 
entrenchments. The order was obeyed with alacrity, but 
just as Hill arrived within two hundred yards of the 
enemy's works, a white flag was hung out from them. 
General Hill at once sent forward an aid to enquire the 
cause of this, and at 10 o'clock received the sword of 
General White, who had succeeded to the command of 
the federal troops after the fall of General Miles, who 
had been mortally wounded during the engagement. The 
firing ce'ased, and the tyroops entered and took possession 
of the place. 

The terms of the surrender accorded by General Jack- 
son were most liberal. The officers were allowed to re- 
tain their private property, and they, taking advantage 
of this privilege, carried off a large portion of the public 
property, and attempted to take with them a number of 
negroes, whom they claimed to have brought with them 
from the North. Many negroes were recognized by their 
owners, who lived in the surrounding country, and re- 
covered. Seventeen wagons were loaned the officers to 
carry off their baggage, and were detained for a long 
time, and then returned in a very damaged condition. 
The men were paroled and allowed to depart, and after- 
wards exchanged. 

General Jackson captured at Harpers Ferry 11,0^0 
troops and Brigadier^eneral White, 73 pieces of artillery, 
nearly 12,000 small arms, about 200 wagons, and a large 
amount of supplies, ammunition and clothing. The fed- 
eral loss in killed and wounded was not very heavy. That 
of the confederates was very slight. 

General Jackson modestly announced his victory in the 
following dispatch ;■ 



Headquarters Valley District, y 
September 16th, .1862. J 

Colonel : 

Yesterday God crowned our arms with another brilliant suc- 
cess, on the surrender at Harpers Ferry, of Brigadier-general Whito 
and 11,000 troops, an equal number of small arms, 73 pieces of artil- 
lery, and about 200 wagons. 

In addition to other stores, there is a large amount 1 of camp and 
garrison equipage. 0,ur loss is very small. The meritorious conduct 
of officers and men wilj be mentioned in a more detailed report. 

I am colonel, your obedient servant, 

T. J. Jackson, Major-general. 
Col. R. H. Chilton, A. A. G. ' • 

While these events were transpiring at Harpers Ferry, 
others of equal importance were occurring in Maryland. 
The column of General D. H. Hill had been left to guard 
the passes of the South mountain. On the 14th of Sep- 
tember, General McClellan came up with General Hill 
and engaged him. Seeing Hill go sorely pressed, and 
being informed that Harpers Ferry would fall the next 
day, General Lee moved up with Longstreet's column to 
his assistance. The enemy were held in check, and du- 
ring the night the army withdrew towards the Potomac, 
halting on the banks of the Antjetaui creek, near the 
village of Sharpsburg. 

It was expected that Harpers Ferry would fall on the 
13th, and if this had been the case, the object of the 
campaign being accomplished, the army of General Lee 
could have retired across the Potomac without fighting the 
battles of Boonsboro' or Sharpsburg. But the obstacles 
were more formidable than had been anticipated ; and as 
Harpers Ferry had not fallen when McClellan came up 
with D. H. Hill, it was necessary to fight him in order to 


cover the operations of General Jackson; and upon finding 
that the federals pressed so closely upon him after leaving 
Boonsboro', General Lee saw that it would be necessary 
to fight McClellan again in order to check his advance, 
and secure a safe passage of the Potomac. He accord- 
ingly sent orders to General Jackson to join him at once 
at Sharpsburg. The army had been greatly weakened 
by sickness and other causes, but especially by the strag- 
gling of the men, which' had'been indulged in to a shame- 
ful extent. Over thirty thousand men had been lost to 
the army in this way, since the march from the Rapidan 

On Monday, General Jackson received General Lee's 
order to join him. McLaws and Walker, with then- 
forces, crossed over to Harpers Ferry ; A. P Hill's di- 
vision was left to hold the place until the captured arti- 
cles could be removed, and in the afternoon the corps 
began the march up the river to rejoin General Lee.* 

On Thursday, the 16th, General Jackson with bis own 
and Ewell's divisions reached the army on the Antietam 
and disposed his forces to take part in the approaching 

" :; " Colonel Ford, an officer of the federal army, relates the following 
incident which occurred at Harpers Feriy : 

'■While we were in conversation," he says, " an orderly rode rap- 
idly across the bridge and said to General Jackson, 'I am ordered. 
by General McLaws to report to you that. General McClellan is within 
six miles with an immense arm}'.' Jackson took -no notice of the 
orderly apparently, and continued his conversation ; but when the 
orderly had turned away, Jackson called after him with the question, 
' Has McClellan any baggage train or drove of cattle ?' The reply 
was that he had. Jackson remarked that he could whip any army 
that was followed by a flock of cattle, alluding to the hungry condi- 
tion of his men.'' 


battle. The rest of his command were hurrying on, but 
had not yet come up. 

General Lee's army was drawn up on the Antietam 
creek, a small stream near the town of Sharpsburg. The 
town lies in a deep valley, through which winds the creek. 
On the east is a high mountain ridge, running nearly 
from North to South. The country is very undulating, 
The right wing of the army^ under General Longstreet, 
rested at the base of the mountain ridge ; the centre, 
under General D. H. Hill, at Sharpsburg, and the left, 
(consisting of his two divisions) under General Jackson, 
about a mile to the left of the town. ^ 

The enemy appeared in front of General Lee's posi- 
tion about three or four o'clock on Monday afternoon, but 
made no attack. Tuesday was spent by General McClel- 
lan in massing his troops on his right for the purpose of 
endeavoring to turn the confederate left flank. Late on 
Tuesday evening, heavy skirmishing occurred between 
the two armies. 

On the eve of a great battle, General Lee's effective 
force did not number thirty-five thousand men, and of 
these, three divisions (McLaws, A. P Hill and Walker) 
were yet to come up. The enemy had over one hundred 
thousand of his best troops. 

At three o'clock on the morning of the 17th of Sep- 
tember, the troops were under arms. At daylight the 
pickets commenced skirmishing. Soon after this the 
enemy opened a heavy artillery fire upon the confederate 
position, and the battle had fairly begun. Between six 
and seven o'clock, the main body of the enemy was 
hurled with terrific force against Ewell's division (under 
Lawton) in a desperate attempt to turn the confederate 


left flank, and from this division the fight extended to 
Jackson's own. The Southern troops were largely out- 
numbered, but fought with great efficiency. The enemy 
had concentrated his best troops for his attempt to turn 
General Lee's left, and for two hours and a half the 
battle raged with varying success. Large numbers had 
been lost on both sides, and finally Ewell's hardy vete- 
rans, borne down by superior numbers, began to give way. 
At this moment, Hood, who had been ordered to General 
Jackson's assistance, dashed into the fight, and the 
troops of General Lawton rallying quickly, a fresh stand 
was made against the enemy, and soon the federal col- 
umns were driven back. Receiving reinforcements, they 
again forced the confederates to retire, having succeeded 
by mere superiority of numbers in outflanking General 
Jackson, whose men retired slowly, hotly contesting 
every inch of ground. Eight federal batteries were 
now in full play upon the troops under General Jack- 
son, while huge swarms of Northern infantry pressed 
heavily upon them. McLaws had just come up, and 
General Lee ordered him to Jackson's assistance. As 
McLaws brought up 'his division, Jackson's men were 
nearly exhausted and almost out of ammunition. Bring- 
ing his reinforcements into action with a skilful hand, 
and advancing his whole line, General Jackson swept 
down upon the enemy with impetuosity and drove them 
before him at all points. For half an hour longer the 
battle raged furiously, and then the enemy began to. re- 
treat. They were driven from the field, and at one point 
pursued for nearly a mile. The engagement ,on the left 
ceased at half-past ten o'clock, and was not renewed by 
the enemy during the day. They contented themselves 


with endeavoring to prevent General Jackson from driving 
back their lines from their original position. 

Soon after the close of the fight on the left, the fede- 
rals attacked General D. H. Hill's position at Sharps- 
burg. Previous to this, an artillery fight, which com- 
menced at sunrise, had been going on at this point. 
About 12 o'clock a column of federal infantry crossed 
the Antietam, and advanced upon the confederate centre, 
while other troops were hurried over the creek to the as- 
sistance of the first column. 

The confederate artillery receiving the fire of the fed- 
eral guns without returning it, directed tbeir attention to 
the infantry, and uniting their efforts with those of the 
Southern infantry, drove back assault after assault, in- 
flicting heavy losses upon the enemy. Finally they were 
driven back- in confusion actoss the Antietam. 

It was now 1 o'clock in the afternoon, and a lull in the" 
battle occurred, which lasted for two hours. At 3 o'clock 
the approach of A. P Hill with the v rest of Jackson's 
forces was announced. The confederate force on the 
extreme right did not now exceed six thousand men, 
while the enemy were seen approaching, about fifteen 
thousand strong, to attack it. Charging in one solid 
mass, they endeavored, by their great weight, to break 
and drive back the Southern line. In this they were 
well nigh successful. The artillery poured a destructive* 
fire into their ranks, but filling up the gaps they dashed 
on with spirit. The Southern infantry resisted their ad- 
vance right manfully, but at last, having fired their last 
cartridge, began to give way. It was 4 o'clock, and the 
fate of the day was trembling in the balance. At this 
moment- A. P Hill, the Blucher of the day, clashed for- 


•ward -with his hardy veterans, and throwing them upon 
the enemy, engaged them in an obstinate conflict, which, 
about 6 o'clock, resulted in the federals being driven, 
with broken and shattered ranks, back over the Antie- 
tam. Night coming on, the battle ended. The enemy 
had been driven back at all points, and the confederates 
were left in possession of the field. 

The confederate loss in this battle was about 7,000 
men, including Generals Starke and Branch killed, and 
Generals Anderson, Lawton, Wright, Ripley and Armis- 
tead wounded. The enemy lost about 25,000 men, in- 
cluding Generals Hooker, Hartsuff, Duryee, Richardson, 
Sedgwick, French, Sumner, Dana, Meagher, Ricketts, 
"Weber and Rodman wounded. They claimed to have 
won a great victory. This, as has been seen, was untrue. 
They were defeated at every point. 

On Thursday morning the enemy were not to be found'. 
They had abandoned their position during the night, and 
had withdrawn a short distance from the field. During 
the day several*" flags of truce" came in from che enemy, 
asking permission to bury the dead. The requests were 
refused, because they did not come from general McClel- 
lan. All of the wounded, except tb^se who were too 
badly hurt to be removed, were carried from the field, 
and the army remained in possession of the battle ground 
during the entire day. At ni^ht General Lee withdrew 
his troc-ps, and, recrossing tie Potomac, retired into Vir- 

In order to defend his passage of the Potomac, Gene- 
ral Lee placed General Pendleton, with forty or' fifty 
pieces of artillery and three brigades of infantry, at 
Boteler's- mill,- near Shepherdstown, on the right bank- of 


the river. After the army had crossed, this force, sup- 
ported by another, all under General A. P Hill, was left 
to watch the enemy, while the main body of the army 
retired a few miles beyond Shepherdstown, 

On Friday, the 19th, the enemy appeared in large 
force, on the opposite side of the river, and wishing to 
decoy them over, General Hill withdrew his main body 
from sight and left a very weak force confronting them. 

On the next day, (Saturday the 20th of September), 
the federal commander crossed a large column and made 
an effort to .capture the little band. As soon as the enemy 
had gotten fairly over, General Hill advanced his troops, 
and falling suddenly upon them, drove them across the 
river with great slaughter. So great was their confusion 
and fright, that, although the river was scarcely more 
than knee deep, many were drowned in crossing. The 
confederates poured a withering fire into them, and the 
river was, in many places, literally black with their corpses, 
and, it is said, the water was red with their blood for a 
mile below the ford. The enemy lost 2,500 men, and the 
confederates 250. 

After recrosaing the Potomac, General Lee withdrew 
his army to Marfinsburg qpd began the work of reor- 
ganization. Stragglers were picked up and brought in, 
and the army gradually resumed its former proportions. 

The campaign in Maryland had been eminently suc- 
cessful. In commencing t\e narration of it, I asserted 
that it was General Lee's object to capture the federal 
force at Harpers Ferry. If this assertion is true, it is 
impossible to deny that the campaign was successful. But 
if it was his object to liberate the state of Maryland, the 
campaign was a failure. In the absence of official infor- 


mation, we can only speculate upon the probable designs 
of General Lee ; but with the existing facts before us, I 
think we can arrive at a very fair estimate of his inten- 
tions in invading the state of Maryland. 

When his army reached Pleasant Valley, General Lee 
had a choice of two routes leading into- Maryland: he 
could cross the Potomac either near Seneca falls, or in 
the neighborhood of Poolsville. By crossing at the for- 
mer place he would be nearer Washington, and by a 
rapid march would be enabled to seize the only railroad 
leading to the city, and cut off its communications with 
the North. If forced to retreat, the way was open 
through Montgomery county. He would then be in a 
portion of Maryland where he would be surrounded by 
friends, and where thousands would flock to his standard. 
He could, in case of necessity, aid the city of Baltimore 
and Lower Maryland in throwing off the federal yoke ; 
and if he could hold the army of General Pope within 
the lines of Washington, he would have every reason to 
hope for success. But if he should enter the state by 
the latter route, he would be in a section hostile to him, 
far removed from the federal capital and the friends of 
the South, and with a large federal army between him- 
self and Southern Maryland. The liberation of Mary- 
land must necessarily be a slow process and accompanied 
with very great risk. In the present condition of affairs, 
the South was not prepared to attempt it. But a tempt- 
ing prize lay within the grasp of the confederate com- 
mander. The stronghold of Harpers Ferry, with its 
large garrison and immense quantities of stores, might, 
by a bold movement be captured, The garrison would 
thus, for a time, be lost to the federal service, and the 


stores, of which the South stood greatly in need, secured 
to her. To capture Harpers Ferry General Lee resolyed, 
and for this purpose the army entered Maryland. 

At Frederick city, General Lee issued a proclamation, 
inviting the Marylanders to rise in defence of their lib- 
erties. An accomplished writer, "who is not an admirer 
of General Lee, says that " Ms proclamation at Fred- 
erick, offering protection to the Marylanders, is incon- 
trovertible evidence of the fact that the object of the 
campaign was to occupy and hold the state." I admit 
that at first this seems to be true. But a closer exami- 
nation of the subject must convince every unprejudiced 
person that this proclamation affords no such evidence. 
In it General Lee no where asserts his intention to occupy 
and hold the state. He says the people of the South 
sympathize with Maryland, and wish to see her freed 
from the tyranny of her foes, and adds : "In obedience 
to this wish our army has come among you and is pre- 
pared to assist you with the power of its arms in regain- 
ing the rights of which you have been deprived." 

In this announcement I can no where see the assertion 
of a determination to liberate the state or to occupy and 
hold it. General Lee states that the army is " prepared 
to assist" the people, but does not say that it is his pur- 
pose to remove the federal yoke from Maryland. It was 
necessary for the army to place the Marylanders in a 
condition to rise before they could avail themselves of 
the offer ; and this had not been done. Of course, if 
they should rise against the federals, it would be a great 
gain for General Lee. I do not think he expected them 
to rise, and I am convinced that his proclamation was 
issued for the purpose of deceiving the enemy as to his 


real intentions — a measure which he could embrace with 
perfect propriety. The permanent occupation of Mary- 
land would have been of incalculable value to the South, 
but what good would have resulted from the occupation 
of the western portion of it, sixty miles from Baltimore, 
with a large hostile army between Washington and Fred- 
erick, I am at a loss to discover. 

The proclamation, which those who pronounce this 
campaign "a failure," hold up as such "incontrover- 
tible evidence" of the truth of that assertion, was issued 
on the 8th of September 1862. On the morning of the 
10th, the army left Frederick £nd moved towards Ha- 
gerstown, thus increasing the distance between itself and 
Washington and its friends, but drawing nearer to Har- 
pers Ferry. Surely General Lee could not expect his 
proclamation to be scattered through the state, and the 
friends of the South to flock to him from a distance vary- 
ing from sixty to one hundred and twenty miles, in the 
short space of two days. And if he had wished them to 
rise, why should he have moved his army farther from 
them. It is certainly more reasonable to suppose that in 
this case he would have moved nearer to Washington, 
and either have crossed the Monocacy himself, or have 
prevented the passage of it by the army of General Mc- 
Clellan, which, he knew, was preparing to advance upon 
him. Every movement of his army was towards Harpers 
Ferry, and affords "incontrovertible evidence" that it 
was his object to capture that place. Of the events 
which would have followed the capture of Harpers Ferry, 
I am, «of course, unprepared to speak ; but I do not 
believe that General Lee expected to fight either at 
Boonsboro' or Sharpsburg. The delay in the capture of 


Harpers Ferry, necessitating a protection of Jackson's 
operations, and the rapid advance of McClellan, forced 
him to fight at those places, and added new laurels to the 
wreath that already encircled his hrow. 

The assertion of the enemies of General Lee, must, 
therefore, fall, to the ground, when opposed by a fair and 
unprejudiced statement of facts. 

In support of my argument, I append the 'following 
extract from a letter written to the London " Times," by 
a correspondent, who was furnished by General Lee him- 
self with such information, as it was proper to reveal, 
concerning the campaign. He says : 

" It is generally stated that the confederate authorities 
calculated upon a rising in Maryland directly their army 
entered that state. Nevertheless, everybody to whom I, 
spoke on the subject ridiculed the idea of ever having 
thought that any such rising would ever take place* until 
either Baltimore was in their hands, or they had at least 
established a position in that country, as it was well 
known that the inhabitants of Washington and Frederick 
counties were far from being unanimous in their opinions, 
and that in many districts there, the unionists were con- 
siderably in the majority." 

After remaining in* Martinsburg a short time, General 
Lee removed his army to Winchester. The enemy occu- 
pied Harpers Ferry and the left bank of the Potomac as 
far as Williamsport, occasionally throwing bodies of troops 
into Virginia. 

General Jackson was once more in the Valley of Vir- 
ginia, and had redeemed the promise made to the'people 
of Winchester when he left it the last time, that " Tie 
zvould return again shortly, and as certainly as noiv." 


That coming had long been -watched for by both friend 
and foe. Once when he was moving upon Pope at Cedar 
run, the enemy at Winchester had been startled by the 
report that he was moving rapidly down the Valley, and 
had been filled with dismay at the prospect of meeting 

He. had come again to the Valley bearing the laurels 
of nearly half a score of victories won since he left it. 
He came only once more — never to leave it. 

While the army lay at Winchester, General Jackson 
.was charged with the duty of watching the enemy. About 
the middle of October, General McClellan crossed his 
army at Harpers Ferry and Williamsport, and moving 
forward, occupied Charlestown in Jefferson county, and 
Kearneysville on the Baltimore and Ohio railroad. Se- 
vere skirmishing occurred along the lines daily. On the 
17th of October the enemy moved forward from the Po- 
tomac towards Martinsburg. General Jackson at once 
advanced upon them and drove them rapidly across the 
the river. Remaining with his command for some time 
in the neighborhood of the Potomac, he inflicted great 
damage upon the Baltimore and Ohio railroad, tearing 
up the track and burning bridges. That portion of the 
road extending from Sir John's run, in Morgan county , 
to a point within a few miles of Harpers Ferry, a dis- 
tance of about forty miles, was entirely destroyed. 

General McClellan lay idly watching General Lee until 
late in October. His forces were more numerous and 
better equipped than those of the confederate commander, 
but he had suffered too severely from Lee's skill and the 
bravery of his troops, to wish to attack him again. The 
federal government sent General McClellan repeated 


orders to advance upon General Lee, but he contrived to 
evade the execution of them, knowing that his safety lay 
in inaction. At last, having received peremptory orders 
to advance, he moved the main body of his army east of 
the Blue Ridge, sending the corps of General Burnside 
in advance. His object was to seize the passes of the 
Blue Ridge, hold the army of General Lee in check, and 
force that officer either to remain in the Valley or to pass 
the mountains nearer to Staunton, while he would send a 
strong column to attack Richmond. The plan was well 
laid, but not deep enough to baffle the penetration of 
General Lee. Scarcely had McClellan put his troops in 
motion, when Longstreet's corps .passed the Blue Ridge 
and moved towards Culpeper. General Jackson was left 
behind to watch McClellan, to prevent him from occu- 
pying the mountain passes, and to check any pursuit of 
Longstreet that might be attempted. 

McClellan pressed on. General Jackson moving his 
forces from point to point, confused him as to his inten- 
tions, and prevented him from occupying the gaps through 
which he desired to pass his own troops. Baffled by the 
superior skill of Jackson, and finding that Lee had out- 
generalled him again, McClellan began massing his troops 
in the region of Culpeper. The federal army continued 
to move on and reached Warrenton. Here General Mc- 
Clellan was deprived of his command by his government, 
and was succeeded by General Burnside. 

General Burnside finding that General Lee was deter- 
mined to prevent him from passing the upper Rappahan- 
nock, resolved to move his army lower down, cross the 
river at Fredericksburg, and throw himself between Rich- 
mond and General Lee. He at once began to move* his 


army down the Rappahannock, hoping by attracting Lee's 
attention in another direction to accomplish this move- 
ment in secrecy. But General Lee was watching him 
closely, and as soon as he was satisfied as to the inten- 
tions of the federal commander, .moved his army rapidly 
towards Fredericksburg. 

General Sumner commanded the advanced corps of 
General Burnside's army, and when he arrived opposite 
Fredericksburg, demanded of the mayor and council the 
surrender of the place. This was on the 21st of No- 
vember. The city authorities, acting under instructions 
from General Lee, refused to comply with the demand. 
General Burnside hurried forward with the remainder of 
his army, but when he reached the hills of Stafford, op- 
posite Fredericksburg, found the army of General Lee 
occupying the heights in the rear of the town.* 

General Burnside determined to make the Rappahan- 
nock his base of operations against Richmond, and for- 
tified his position. The hills in the rear of Fredericks- 
burg were strongly fortified by the confederates, and for 
some time the two armies lay watching each other. 

General Lee being satisfied as to the intentions of 
General Burnside, directed General Jackson's corps to 
join him. 

General Jackson left the Valley about the 1st of De- 

*Wben the demand for the surrender of Fredericksburg was re- 
ceived, the federal commander was asked for time to obtain an an- 
swer from General Lee. General Sumner replied that the request" 
could not be granted — '•'• the delay would be too great.; General Lee 
•?7&3 at least a hundred miles away." When he was informed that 
Genb.-a: Lee's forces were but three mites from the town, he seeaaed^ 
overwhelmed with astonishment. 



cember, and by a rapid march, reached Fredericksburg 
soon afterwards. 

On the 11th of December, General Burnside crossed 
the Rappahannock and occupied Fredericksburg. 

The army of General Lee was posted on the hills 
which lie in the rear of the town, and which enclose it 
in almost a semi-circle, the centre being about four miles 
from the river. The country between the hills and the 
river is to a great extent open and very little broken. 
Immediately above the town and on the left of the con- 
federate position, the bluffs are bold and without trees or 
undergrowth. As the range of hills extends to the east- 
ward, the elevation decreases, and they become more 
thickly wooded. The left was within rifle range of the 
town, and by far the strongest point of the line. The 
centre and right were weaker, the enemy enjoying many 
advantages in attacking them of which they were de- 
prived on the left. The left was held by General Long- 
street's corps, while Jackson was posted on the right. 
The order of the various divisions, proceeding from left 
to right, was as follows : " Anderson's on the extreme left, 
afterwards Ransom's, McLaws', Pickett's and Hood's — ■ 
these comprising Longstreet's corps ; then A. P. Hill's 
and Taliaferro's of Jackson's corps. The cavak-y under 
General Stuart were posted on the extreme right of the 
line, which stretched along the hills from Fredericksburg 
(on the left), to the Massaponax creek (on the right). 
Ewell's (now under Early) and D. H. Hill's divisions had 
been stationed near Port Royal to prevent a passage of- 
the river at that point by the enemy, and as soon as 
Burnside revealed his intentions, were ordered back. 
They reached the field about 9 o'clock on the morning of 


the battle, and took position on the right to act as a sup- 
port to the rest of Jackson's corps. • 

About 9 o'clock on the morning of the 13th of De- 
cember, the enemy advanced a heavy column, estimated 
at 55,000 strong, to attack General Jackson's position, 
their movement being partially concealed by a heavy fog 
that overhung the entire field, but which was gradually 
lifting. General A. P Hill had been posted with his 
division at Hamilton's crossings — the centre of the con- 
federate line — and upon this point the federal attack was 

As soon as the enemy were seen approaching, General 
Stuart moved forward his horse artillery under Major 
Pelham, and opening an enfilading fire, upon them, doing 
great execution. At the same time the troops of General 
Hill became hotly engaged. The confederates had the 
advantage in position, but the enemy greatly outnum- 
bered them. Twice the enemy furiously assailed General 
Jackson's position. About one o'clock two of Hill's 
brigades were driven back upon his second line, and the 
enemy succeeded in occupying a portion of the woods on 
the crest. But their success was of short duration, for 
Early hurrying, forward with a part of his division, fell 
upon them with fury, drove them from the hill and across 
the plain below, and only ceased his pursuit when his 
men came under the fire of the federal batteries. The 
right of the enemy's column, extending beyond Hill's 
front, took possession of a copse of woods in front of the 
position of General Hood, but were quickly driven from 
it with loss. 

Soon after the repulse of the attack on the right, the 
enemy made a furious charge upon the Southern left 


under General Longstreet. They approached gallantly — 
the Irish division being in the advance. These troops 
fought with desperation, but in vain. From Marye's hill, 
Walton's guns and McLaws' infantry hurled a fearful fire 
upon them, and swept them back with torn and shattered 
ranks into the town. About dark, the enemy made a last 
assault upon the hill, supported by a terrible fire from 
the federal batteries on the opposite side of the river. 
They were again repulsed and driven into. the town. 

The losses sustained by the enemy in these several 
attacks were very great, and the remnants of that splendid 
army, which had so vauntingly crossed the Rappahan- 
nock, crowded at night into Fredericksburg in the great- 
e3t demoralization, and confusion. They ran through the 
streets and cowered in the cellars, positively refusing to 
go back to the field again. Had General Lee opened his 
guns upon the town that night, a perfect massacre and 
the destruction of the greater portion of the federal army 
would have ensued. 

The next day General Burnside gave orders for a sec- 
ond advance upon the confederate lines, but the troops 
refused to obey them ; and his general officers represent- 
ing this to him, induced him to recall his orders. The 
day was spent in burying the dead and caring for the 
wounded. On Monday, the 15th, the enemy continued 
in Fredericksburg, but made no demonstration, and at 
night, under the cover of a severe storm, recrossed the 

The confederate loss in this engagement was about 
1,800, including Generals T. R. R. Cobb and Gregg. 
The enemy's loss has been estimated at from twenty to 
twenty-five thousand men, including Generals Bayard 


and Jackson killed, and several generals wounded, and 
1,626 prisoners. 

During the battle, General Jackson was conspicuous 
for his gallantry. Just before the action began, he rode 
along the lines dressed in a handsome new uniform, the 
gift of a friend. It was his habit to dress very plainly, 
and his men had grown accustomed to watch for their gen- 
eral just before a battle began, never failing to recognize 
him by the old slouched hat and the faded gray uniform, 
when too far off to distinguish 'his features.' Never before 
had they failed to shout until the heavens rung, when 
they saw him. approach. Now they glanced carelessly at 
the officer in the handsome uniform, and gazed impa- 
tiently »up and down the lines, wondering why " Old 
Stonewall" did not appear. After he had passed them, 
it became known to them that the officer in the fine uni- 
form was their general, and they gave vent to many ex- 
clamations of regret at having suffered him to pass them 
without cheering him. 

It is related of him, that a§ the action began, he was 
standing by General Lee,, watching the advance of the 
enemy. The gallant Pelham was bravely contending 
against a heavy fire from the federal batteries. Turning 
to General Jackson, General Lee exclaimed : 

" It is inspiriting to see such glorious courage in one 
so young." 

General Jackson replied in his quiet, firm way : 

" With a Pelham upon either flank, I could vanquish 
the world." 

Shortly after this, General Longstreft asked him, 
smilingly, as he pointed to the federal column which was 
approaching to attack the right : 


" Are you not scared by that file of yankees you have 
before you, down there ?" 

"Wait till they come a little nearer," replied General 
Jackson, " and they shall either scare me, or I'll scare 

At a critical period of the engagement, General Lee 
sent an aid* with an order to General Jackson. The offi- 
cer was searching for him in the midst of a heavy fire 
from the enemy, when he heard some one exclaim : 

" Dismount, sir ! dismount ! You will certainly be 
killed there !" 

Glancing around, he saw General Jackson lying fiat 
upon his back on the ground, while the balls were whist- 
ling all around him. Alighting, he gave him General 
Lee's order. Making the officer lie down by him, Gene- 
ral Jackson read the message, and turning over wrote a 
reply. Handing it to the aid, he resumed his original 
position in the coolest and most unconcerned manner 

During this batt]e there was witnessed a spectacle, 
which, although it was now so familiar to the men, was 
unsurpassed by any 'seen that day. Eiding forward a 
short distance in front of the army, and uncovering his 
head, and raising his eyes to heaven, General Jackson 
prayed the God of battles to be with the army that day. 
The troops looked on with softened hearts, and it would 
have fared badly with the wretch who could have dared 
to make light of such a scene in the presence of one of 
Jackson's men. 

After the battle of Fredericksburg, the' army continued 
to hold its -position on the hills, awaiting the advance of 
the enemy. General Jackson busied himself in looking 


after his men and trying to make them comfortable. He 
also availed himself of this opportunity to prepare his 
official reports of his campaigns. 

During the second session of the first congress, (early 
in 1863), the president was authorized to confer upon a 
certain number of officers of the army the rank of lieu- 
tenant-general. As soon as this law was passed, the 
president conferred upon General Jackson (among others) 
the new rank. 

Late in April, the movements of General Hooker, now 
in command of the federal army, began to assume a sig- 
nificant character, and it became evident that a great 
battle was soon to be fought. 

One evening late in April, General Jackson was con- 
versing with a member of his staff, and giving his rea- 
sons for believing that a great battle was at hand. As 
the conversation progressed, he became unusually excited. 
Suddenly pausing, he was silent for some moments, and 
then said humbly and reverently, " My trust is in God." 
Then, the true spirit of the warrior rising within him, he 
raised himself to his full height, and exclaimed proudly, 
while his noble features glowed with enthusiasm — " I 
wish they would come !" 

Having determined to cross the Rappahannock, Gene- 
ral Hooker began to put his plan into execution. On the 
28th of April he crossed a column under General Sedg- 
wick, at Deep run below Fredericksburg, and in front of 
General Early's position. After severe skirmishing, 
Early forced this column to remain close to the shore of 
the river. Hoping to divert General Lee's attention to 
the column at Deep run, and thus conceal his own move- 
ments, General Hooker, after leaving a strong corps at 

176 Lieutenant-general 

Falmouth, moved bis main army about twenty-five miles 
up the Rappahannock, and crossed the river. The column 
at Deep run was then withdrawn to the Stafford side. It 
was General Hooker's intention to occupy a strong posi- 
tion above Fredericksburg, and thus force. General Lee 
either to submit to an attack in his rear, or to leave his 
works on the Spotsylvania hills and come out and fight 
him in the open field, where, he hoped that his superior 
numbers would give him the victory. As soon as General 
Lee should advance to meet him; Sedgwick was to cross 
the river at Fredericksburg and fall upon Lee's flank. 
In order to cut off General Lee's communications with 
Richmond and deprive him of assistance. General Stone- 
man, with the federal cavalry, was to fall suddenly upon 
the Fredericksburg and Central railroads, destroy them, 
and then do what other damage he could. 

About noon on the 29th of April, General Lee was 
informed that a large force of the enemy had crossed the 
Rappahannock at Kelly's and Ellis' fords, and were press- 
ing towards Ely's and Germanna fords on the Rapidan. 
Two small brigades of Anderson's division (Posey's *nd 
Mahone's) had been stationed for some time at these 
points to guard the approaches to Fredericksburg. Un- 
able to stand before the pressure of Hooker's heavy 
columns, they retired to Chancellorsville, where they de- 
termined to make a stand. General Wright was at once- 
ordered to their assistance, and reached Chancellorsville 
at daylight on the morning of the 30th. General An- 
derson had come up during the night, and having received 
more accurate information respecting the strength of the 
enemy, determined to fall back to a point five miles 
r ; esre? Fredericksburg, where the read leading from 'Uni- 


ted States ford, (called the old Mine road) crosses the 
Orange and Fredericksburg plank road. This point was 
reached about 8 o'clock in the morning, and General An- 
derson, disposing his forces in line of battle, resolved to 
hold his position until he could receive assistance from 
General Lee. His force consisted of scarcely more than 
five thousand men, while Hooker brought with him nearly 
his whole army. The enemy halted at Chancellorsville. 

The position held by the army of Gejieral Hooker was 
very strong* ' His left rested at Chancellorsville, while 
his right stretched away towards Wilderness creek. 

Chancellorsville consists of one large brick house, and 
is situated about «fifteen miles west of Fredericksburg 
and four miles southwest of the Rapidan, at the point 
where the main road from Ely's ford falls into the plank 
road. About four or five miles west of Chancellorsville, 
is a rugged country covered with a thick, tangled and 
apparently impenetrable growth of stunted oaks, called 
the Wilderness. Scattered here and there through this 
Wilderness are cleared spots, varying in size from fifty 
to one hundred acres. Through the midst of these woods 
winds a narrow and tortuous road. Upon the cleared 
spots General Hooker erected strong breastworks, and 
behind them posted his artillery and infantry. To ap- 
proach these works, an attacking force must Either ad- 
vance by the road,, which could be swept by. the artillery, 
or force their way through the woods. A stronger posi- 
tion could not have been chosen, and it is no wonder Gen T 
eral Hooker considered it "impregnable." Strong in- 
trenchments had also been thrown up in the vicinity of 
Chancellorsville, and, thus prepared, General Hooker 
felt confident of success. 



As soon as he heard of General Anderson's situation, 
General Lee ordered General Jackson to leave one divi- 
sion of his corps to hold the works at Fredericksburg, 
and to march with the other three (A. P. Hill's, under 
that general's command ; D. H. Hill's, under General 
Rodes ; and Trimble's under General Colston) to Ander- 
son's position, to take command of Anderson's and part 
of McLaws' divisions, and " attack and repulse the 

Leaving Early's division before Fredericksburg, he 
reached Anderson's position the next morning. Ander- 
son's division was placed in front, and two brigades of 
McLaws' division sent forward on the^United States' ford 
road. Posey's, Wright's, and shortly afterwards Ran- 
seur's brigades were formed in line of battle on both sides 
of the road, at the head of the column, and the com- 
mand advanc'ed towards the enemy. 

As General Jackson approached Chancellorsvilie, some 
slight skirmishing occurred between his advanced forces 
and those of the enemy. 

The day was now far advanced, and General Jackson, 
ordering a halt, spent the rest of the afternoon in bring- 
ing up his command and assigning them to the positions 
they were to occupy the next day. 

General Lee arrived at night, and the plan of opera- 
tions for the.coming day was arranged. -It was necessary 
to act promptly. Sedgewick was hovering suspiciously 
<about Fredericksburg, and might at any moment drive 
back the little force left to check him, and advance to 
Hooker's assistance. It was impossible to gain anything 
by an attack upon Hooker's front, as- its great strength 
would enable a very small force to hold it. General 


•Jackson proposed to move his corps to the left, attack 
Hooker's right and force it back upon Chancellorsville, 
and General Lee gave his sanction to the proposition. 

The night was quite cool. Seeing General Jackson 
without covering or protection of any kind, one of his 
aids offered him his cape, and after much persuasion in- 
duced him to accept it. During the night he was fearful 
that the young man might take cold from being deprived 
of his cape, and rising softly, threw it over him as he lay 
asleep, and then lying down again, passed the night with- 
out any thing around him. This produced a cold, which 
afterwards resulted in pneumonia. He was always careful 
of the comfort of others, even at the sacrifice of h% own. 

Early the next morning General Jackson began his 
movement upon the federal right flank. General Fitz 
Lee's brigade of cavalry was thrown towards the front 
and between the column of General Jackson and. the 
enemy. This gallant cavalier successfully covered the 
movements of General Jackson and prevented the enemy 
from gaining any information respecting them. 

General Jackson took with him only the three divisions 
he had brought with him from Fredericksburg, and moved 
rapidly towards the left to a point called the " Furnace." 
From the " Furnace" he marched still farther to the left, 
and passing around the federal right flank, moved through 
the tangled undergrowth of the Wilderness until he 
reached Germanna ford on the Rapidan. He was now 
completely in the rear of the enemy, and his presence 
was entirely unsuspected by them. . 

Ascending a hill in the vicinity, he obtained an excel- 
lent view of the enemy's position, and hastening to his 
command, prepared to attack the enemy. 


The road by which he determined to advance upon 
them was the old turnpike, which led directly to the fed- 
eral rear. Rode's division was formed in line of battle 
in front ; Hill followed at a distance of three hundred 
yards, and Colston marched behind Hill at the same dis- 
tance from him. The undergrowth was so thick, that 
Hill's and Colston's commands were afterwards marched 
in column along the road, and only Rodes advanced in 
line of battle. The ground was so swampy, that the ar- 
tillery was forced to march in column on the road. 

Marching rapidly down the old turnpike, General Jack- 
son extended his line to the left, intending to cut off the 
federal forces from the United fords and crush 

The enemy's force on his right consisted of the elev- 
enth army corps, under General Howard — formerly com- 
manded by Seigel. They were strongly posted. 

Up to this moment the federals had received no inti- 
mation of General Jackson's approach, and his attack 
took them completely by surprise, and filled them with 

Moving forward rapidly, General Jackson made a furi- 
ous assault upon the federal line and swept it fiercely 
before him. The suddenness and impetuosity of the 
attack demoralized the enemy, and in a short time a 
whole army corps was routed. 

A yankeq correspondent of a New York paper ? thus 
describes the scene : 

" The flying Germans came dashing over the field in 
crowds, stampeding and running as only men do run when 
convinced that sure destruction is awaiting them. I must 
confess that I have no ability to do justice to the scenes 


that followed. It was my lot to be in the centre of the 
field when the panic burst upon us. May I never be a 
witness to another such scene. On one hand was a solid 
column of infantry retreating at double-quick ; on the 
other was a dense mass of human beings who were flying 
as fast as their legs could carry them, followed up by the 
rebels pouring their murderous volleys upon us, yelling 
and hooting .to increase the confusion ; hundreds of cav- 
alry horses, left riderless at the first discharge from the 
rebels, dashing frantically about in all directions ; scores 
of batteries flying from the field ; battery wagons, ambu- 
lances, horses, men, cannon, caissons, all jumbled and 
tumbled together in one inextricable mass — and the mur- 
derous fire of the rebels still pouring in upon them ! To 
add to the terror of the occasion, there was but one 
means of escape from the field, and that through a little 
narrow neck or ravine washed out by Scott's creek. 
Towards this the confused mass plunged headlong. For 
a moment it seemed as if no power could avert the fright- 
ful calamity that threatened the entire army. On came 
the panic-stricken crowd — terrified artillery riders spur- 
ring and lashing their horses to their utmost ; ambulances 
upsetting and being dashed to pieces against trees and 
stumps ; horses dashing over the field ; men flying and 
crying with alarm — a perfect torrent of passion appa- 
rently uncontrolable. The meu ran in all directions. 
They all seemed possessed with an instinctive idea of the 
shortest and most- direct line from the point whence they 
started to the United States mine ford, and the majority 
of them did not stop till they had reached the ford. 
Many of- them, on reaching the fiver, dashed in and swam 
to the north side, and are supposed to be running yet." 


The federal right was now being doubled up on its left 
at Chancellorsville, and it was necessary to press forward 
without delay. 

A. P. Hill's division was thrown forward to relieve 
Rodes, whose men had become greatly exhausted by their 
march through the Wilderness. Hill was ordered to form 
his men on both sides of the road and advance upon the 
enemy. He was directed to refrain from firing " unless 
cavalry approached from the direction of the enemy." 

Hill's skirmishers pressed forward and soon became 
actively engaged with the enemy. 

It was now very dark, and being anxious to obtain the 
exact position of the enemy and satisfy himself as to 
their movements, General Jackson rode forward to the 
line of skirmishers. His position was exceedingly dan- 
gerous, as the enemy's sharpshooters in the woods in front 
might at any moment kill or wound him. One of his 
aids said to him : 

" General, don't you think this is the wrong place for 

General Jackson turned to him and said joyfully : 

" The danger is all over : the enemy is routed ! Go 
back and tell A. P Hill to press right on !" 

Upon finishing his observations, and discovering the 
enemy's skirmishers approaching, he turned to ride back, 
forgetting, doubtless, the order he had given. As the 
party came near the Southern lines, they were mistaken 
for a body of federal cavalry and fired upon. General 
Jackson was struck by three balls. One entered his left 
arm, two inches below the shoulder joint, shattering the 
bone and severing the principal artery; another entered 
the same arm between the elbow end the wrist, passing 


out through the palm of the hand, and the third entered 
the palm of the right hand, about the middle, and passing 
through, broke two of the bones. This occurred about 8 
o'clock in the evening, on the plank road, about fifty 
yards in advance of the enemy. One of General Jack- 
son's staff and two couriers were killed, and another staff 
officer wounded by this discharge. General Jackson at 
once fell from his horse, and was caught by Captain 
Wormley. He said to him calmly, as that officer knelt 
by him, "All my wounds are by my own men." 

The firing was now resumed by both armies. The 
enemy's forces advanced, and charged over General Jack- 
son as he lay upon the ground. In a few minutes they 
were driven back and assistance rendered to General 
Jackson. He was at once placed' on a litter and sent to 
the rear. He had to be carried, along the line of fire, 
and one of the litter bearers was shot down, and the 
general was thrown heavily to the ground, adding to the 
ipjury done to his arm, and hurting his side severely. 
Seeing that it would be impossible for the litter-bearers 
to carry him from the field under such a heavy fire, Gen- 
eral Jackson directed them to leave him until it slackened, 
and for five minutes he was left alone, exposed to the 
fearful storm of balls that swept the field thickly all 
around him. When the firing slackened,* he was placed 
in an ambulance and carried to the hospital near Wilder- 
ness run. 

As he was being carried from the field, frequent en- 
quiries were made by the men, "Who have you there?" 
He turned to the surgeon, who was with him, and said : 

"Do not tell the troops I am wounded." 

He lost much blood, and but for the applica'tion of a 


tourniquet, would have bled to death. For two hours he 
was almost pulseless. At one time he thought he was 
dying, and the tourniquet was applied. 

General Hill being disabled by a wound, General Stu- 
art was sent for, and took command of Jackson's corps. 
The next day the enemy were routed and driven from 
Chancellorsville to the banks of the Eappahannock. On 
the same day General Sedgewick crossed at Fredericks- 
burg, and carried the hills in the rear of the place. On 
Monday (4th May,) General Lee moved back with a por- 
tion of his army, and drove Sedgewick across the river. 
Having disposed of Sedgewick, he again advanced upon 
Hooker, who was lying close to the banks of the Rappa- 
hannock. A severe storm delayed his movement, and 
Hooker taking advantage of it retreated across the river. 

After General Jackson was carried to the hospital, and 
had recovered slightly from the great prostration caused 
by the loss of so much blood, Drs. Black, Coleman, 
McGuire and Walls, the surgeons in attendance upon 
him, held a consultation with reference to his wounds, 
and decided that amputation was necessa'ry. Dr. McGuire 
approached the general, and asked him : 

"If we find amputation necessary, shall it be done at 

General Jackson replied promptly and firmly : 

"Yes ! certainly — Dr. McGuire do for me whatever 
you think right." 

The operation was performed while the general was 
under the influence of chloroform, and he ' bore it well. 
Sometime afterwards, he stated to a friend that his sen- 
sation in taking chloroform was delightful, that he was 
conscious of everything that was done to him, that the 


sawing of his, Done sounded like the sweetest music, and 
every feeling was pleasant. , * 

As soon as General Jackson was wounded, he' sent 
information of the sad event to General Lee. The mes- 
senger reached his headquarters about 4 o'clock on Sun- 
day morning, and found the commander-in-chief resting 
upon a bed of straw. Upon being informed of General 
Jackson's misfortune, he exclaimed : 

" Thank God it is no worse ! God be praised he is 
still alive!" Then he added: "Any victory is a dear 
one that deprives us of the services of Jackson, even for 
a short time." 

The officer who brought the information remarked that 
he believed it was General Jackson's intention to have 
pressed the enemy on Sunday, had he been spared. Gen- 
eral Lee said quietly : " These people shall be pressed 
to-day." Rising and dressing, he partook of his simple 
meal of ham and crackers and set out for the field. The 
history of that day proved that he remembered his 

After the defeat of Hooker, General Lee addressed to 
General Jackson the following noble letter, which is char- 
acteristic of him : 

General : 

I have just received your note informing me that you were 
wounded. I'canuot express my regret at the occurrence. Could I 
have dictated events, I should have chosen for the good of the coun- 
try, to 'nave been disabled ia your stead. 

I congratulate you upon the victory which is due to your skill and 

When this note was read to General Jackson, it is said 
he exclaimed with emotion : 

"Far better for the Confederacy that ten Jaeksons 


should have fallen, than one Lee." Tficn he added, 
calmly and humbly:. " General Lee should give the glory 
to God." 

On Sunday morning he slept for a short ■while. During 
the day he was very cheerful. Pointing to his mutilated 
left arm, he said to one of his aids : 

" Many poople would would regard this as a great mis- 
fortune. I regard it as one of the greatest blessings of 

O o CD 

my life." 

The officer replied : 

" All things work together for good to those that love 

"Yes! yes!" was the earnest reply. " That's it." 

He sent for Mrs. Jackson, who was in Richmond. 

He asked many questions about the battle of the previ- 
ous day, and spoke cheerfully of the final result. Turning 
to a friend, he said : 

'' If I had not been wounded, or had had an hour more 
of daylight, I would have cut off the enemy from the 
road to the United States ford, and we would have had 
them entirely surrounded, and they would have been 
obliged to surrender, or cut their way out : they had no 
other alternative. My troops may sometimes fail in dri- 
ving the enemy from a position," he added with a smile ; 
" but the enemy always fail to drive my men from a po- 

He spoke in the highest terms of the conduct of Gen- 
eral Rodes during the battle, and said that he had fairly 
won his major-general's commission, which ought to date 
from the day of the battle. General Jackson had con- 
ferred this rank upon him, on the field, and the president 
afterwards confirmed it. 


He complained during the day of the effects of his fall 
from the litter, though as yet they were not visible.- 

On Sunday night he slept well. 

On Monday he was carried to Chandler's house, near 
Guinea's station. He was still cheerful, and questioned 
those around him as to the battle of Sunday. When he 
was told of the grand charge of his old " Stonewall 'bri- 
gade," led by General Stuart in person, how with the^ 
shout " Charge, and remember Jackson, !" they pressed 
on in that irresistible advance, over the dead and the 
dying, and how with torn and mangled ranks they drove 
the enemy from the field, his eyes fkshed, his breast 
heaved, and he exclaimed with deep emotion : 

"It was just like them ! it was just like them ! They 
are a noble body of men." 

Afterwards he remarked that " the men who live 
through this war will be proud to say to their children, 
' I was one of the Stonewall brigade.'" He also said 
that the term " Stonewall" belonged to his old brigade, 
rather than to himself ; and insisted that it should be 
called by it. He was very much affected by the news of 
the death of his friend, General Paxton. 

During his sufferings, his mind very frequently ran 
upon religious subjects. Speaking with one of his staff 
as to wb ether those who were miraculously cured by 
Jesus, ever had a return of the disease, he exclaimed : 

" I do not think they could have returned, for the 
power was too great — the poor paralytic would never 
again shake with palsy. Oh ! for infinite power !" 

While he was being carried to Guinea's, he complained 
of the . intense heat, and asked that a wet cloth might 
be placed to his stomach. This was done, and he 


seemed to be greatly relieved. On Monday night lie slept 

On Tuesday he seemed to be better and ate with relish. 
During the day he asked his surgeon : 

" Can you tell me from the appearance of my wounds, 
how long I will be kept from the field ?" 

He was told that he was doing remarkably well, and if 
he continued to improve, it would not be long. Soon 
after this he expressed a wish to see the members of his 
staff, but was advised not to do so, as he needed repose. 

On Wednesday his wounds seemed to be improving. It 
had been arranged that he should go to Richmond to-day, 
but a rain prevented it. At night he slept very badly. 
His surgeon, who had been without sleep for three nights, 
was advised to take some rest, and while he was asleep 
General Jackson complained of sickness, and ordered his 
servant to place a wet cloth to his stomach. About day- 
light, the surgeon was awakened by this servant, who in- 
formed him that the general was suffering great pain. 
Upon examination it was found that pneumonia had set 
in, resulting from his exposure on the night before the 
battle. His system was too weak and exhausted to cast 
it off, and the disease increased alarmingly. 

On Thursday Mrs. Jackson arrived from Richmond. 
This gave him great satisfaction, and he seemed to im- 
prove under the faithful nursing of his wife. He was in 
pain during the clay, but at night all pain had left him. 
Still he suffered greatly from prostration. 

On Friday he was free from pain, but the prostration 

Saturday passed away, and he grew feebler every hour. 

On Sunday morning it was evident to all that he was 


sinking rapidly. Mrs. Jackson was informed of this, and 
requested to make it known to her husband. 

Upon this day he was very calm and cheerful, and en- 
deavored to cheer those around him. Turning to his 
wife, he said to her tenderly : 

" I know you would gladly give your life for me, but I 
am perfectly resigned. Do not be sad : I hope I shall 
recover. Pray for me, but always remember in your 
prayers to use the petition, ' Thy will be done.' " 

He advised her in the event of his death, to return to 
her father's home, and added : 

"You have a kind, good father. But there is no one 
so kind and good as your heavenly father." 

During his illness he manifested towards all around 
him, and especially to his wife, a greater degree of gen- 
tleness and tenderness chan^is usual with him. It was 
the calm sternness of the warrior giving place to the out- 
gushings of a pure and noble heart. When the surgeons 
told his wife that he could not live more than two hours, 
she informed him of the fact. He replied that he was 
willing to die, and added : 

"It will be infinite gain to be translated to heaven, and 
be with Jesus." 

It had ever been with him a cherished wish to die on 
the Sabbath, and now God was about to grant his wish. 
It. had been his custom to see that religious services were 
held regularly in his camp, and early on Sunday morn- 
ing he asked who was to preach to the men that day, and 
upon learning that they would not be deprived that day 
of their accustomed services, seemed satisfied. 

After parting with his wife and his friends, and sen.d- 
inf messages to the various generals with whom he had 


been associated, and to his men, and expressing a wish 
he had frequently mentioned -before, that General Ewell 
should succeed him in the command of his corps, and his 
desire to be buried in Lexington, Virginia, he became 
slightly delerious. Occasionally in his wanderings he 
would speak of some religious subject, and then give an 
order. Among his last words, he was heard to exclaim: 

"Order A. P Hill to prepare for action." "Pass the 
infantry to the front." "Tell Major Hawks to send for- 
ward provisions to the men." "Let us cross over the 
river, and rest under the shade of the trees." 

Then he sank gradually,, and at fifteen minutes after 
three o'clock, in the afternoon of the tenth of May, he 
expired peacefully. His soul had passed over the dark 
river and was resting under the trees of heaven. The 
brief but eventful life of t™ great and good man was 
ended, and now in his fortieth year he was lost to his 
country that needed him so much. 

The news of the wounding of General Jackson filled 
the army with the most profound and undisguised grief. 
His men loved him devotedly, and he was the idol of the 
whole, army. Many stout-hearted veterans, who had, 
under his guicla'nce, borne hardships and privations in- 
numerable, and dangers the most appalling, without a 
murmur, wept like children when told that their idolized 
general was no more. The death of General Jackson 
was communicated to the arnry in the following order : 

Northern Virg 
May 11th, 1863. 
General Orders No. 61. 

With deep grief the commanding general announces to the 
away the death of Lieutenant-general T. J. Jackson, who expired 
on the 10th inst., at quarter past 3 P M. Tlje daring, skill and energy 

Headquarters Army op Northern Virginia, | 


of this great and good soldier, by the decree of an All-Wise Provi- 
dence, are now lost to us. But while we mourn his death, *ve feel 
that his spirit still lives, and will inspire the whole arrSy with his 
indomitable courage, and unshaken confidence in God, as our hope 
and strength. Let his name be a watchword to his corps, who have 
followed him to victory on so many fields. Let his officers and sol- 
diers emulate his invincible determination to do everything in the 
defence of our beloved country. • 

R. E. Lee, General. 

Throughout the country the news of the wounding of 
General Jackson had carried the greatest grief and 
alarm. The people had learned to look upon him as the 
great champion of the South, and they were filled with 
serious apprehension, when they contemplated the proba- 
bility of losing his services. The greatest 'anxiety to 
hear from him was everywhere manifested; for there was 
not a heart in the South thafr'did not throb more warmly 
when the name of "Stonewall Jackson" was mentioned. 
A week of long and anxious suspense passed away, and 
at last, when all were, to a certain degree, prepared for 
it, the news came that the idol of the South was no more. 
The first information of the death of General Jackson 
was telegraphed to the governor of Virginia, and then 
hurried all over the land, carrying sorrow wherever it 
went. % 

On Monday morning the 11th of May, it was announced 
that the remains of General Jackson would reach Rich- 
mond during the day, and the mayor of the city at once 
requested all persons to suspend business after ten o'clock, 
in token of their respect- for the departed hero. All 
stores, workshops, the government departments, and all 
places in which labor was performed, were closed. Flags 
-were hung at half-mast, and a deep silence reigned over 



the capital of Virginia. Large crowds filled the streets, 
and in spite of the intense heat, waited patiently for the 
arrival of the cars from Fredericksburg. 

Shortly after four o'clock in the afternoon, the special 
train containing the precious burden, moved slowly into 
the city- Only the solemn peals of the bells as they 
toiled their mournful knell, broke the deep silence that 
reigned over everything. 

At the depot the coffin was removed from the cars, and 
placed in a hearse to be carried to the mansion of the 
governor. The escort which received it consisted of 
Major-general Elzey and staff, the State Guard of Vir- 
ginia, with colors shrouded in mourning, the forty-fourth 
North Carolina and the first Virginia regiments, (after 
which came the hearse and General Jackson's staff,) the 
city authorities and citizens on foot. 

The remains were escorted to the mansion of the gov- 
ernor, and placed in the reception parlor. The lid of the 
coffin was removed, the new flag of the Confederacy, 
which had never before been used for any purposed, was 
thrown over it, and a single wreath of laurel laid upon 
the lifeless breast. During the evening his friends were 
allowed to visit the body. The only change that was 
perceptive, was that the features seemed somewhat 
smaller than they were in life. But there was still the 
firm, grave expression which had always dwelt there, and 
above all, there rested upon the lifeless countenance an 
expression of happiness and peace, so perfect and so in- 
tense, that the gazer was awed and thrilled by it. 

During the night the body was embalmed, and a plaster 
cast of his features taken, in order that they might be 
preserved in marble. 


The next day, all the honors that his native state could 
lavish upon her noble son were heaped upon him. At 
eleven o'clock his body was removed from the executive 
mansion, and conveyed with appropriate ceremonies to 
the capitol of "Virginia. 

The procession was formed in the following order, the 
troops marching with reversed arms : 


A brass baad. 

The 10th regiment of Virginia infantry. 

The 56th regiment of Virginia infantry. 

The State Guard of Virginia. 

Major-general Pickett and staff, mounted. 

A battery (6 pieces) of artillery. 

A squadron of cavalry. 


containing the coffin, 

With Major-general Swell, Brigadier-generals Winder, Churchill, 

Corse, Stuart, (G. H.) Kemper and Garnett, and Admiral 

Forrest of the navy as pall bearers. 

The favorite horse of General Jackson, fully caparisoned and led by 

his servant, 
The members of the old " Stonewall brigade," who were, present in 

the city. 

A band of music. 

Major-general Elzey and staff. 

The officials of the military department of Henrico. 

A carriage containing the president of the Confederate States. 

The members of the cabinet on foot. 

The heads of bureaux, and their clerks, on foot. 

The governor of Virginia and his aids. 

The state officers and clerks. 

The mayor and city authorities. 

The judges of the state and confederate courts. 

Citizens on foot. 


The procession moved from the executive mansion, 


down Governor street into Main, up Main to Second, 
through second to Grace, and down Grace to the capitol 

The streets were filled with large crowds. The mourn- 
ful cortege moved on in silence, which was only broken 
by the solemn strains of music, and the discharge of ar- 
•tillery at intervals of half an hour. Tears rolled down 
many cheeks, and hundreds who had known General 
Jackson only by his great deeds, wept as though mourn- 
ing for a brother. Such a universal outburst of grief had 
never been witnessed in Virginia since the death of 

Upon the arrival of the procession at the square, the 
column was halted, the body removed and borne into the 
capitol, where it was laid in state in the hall of the house 
of representatives of the Confederate States. 

At least twenty thousand persons visited the hall to 
behold the remains of the hero that day. 

The next morning the remains were placed on a special 
train and conveyed to Lynchburg. It was hoped that 
General Jackson would be buried in Hollywood cemetery, 
near Richmond. There Virginia has prepared a last 
resting-place for her honored children. There rest the 
ashes of Monroe and Tyler and many of the good and 
brave of this revolution, and it was hoped that there too 
would rest the dust of General Jackson. But it was his 
wish to sleep in his dearly loved home in the Valley, and 
thither all that remained of him was carried. On Wed- 
nesday morning the remains passed through Lynchburg. 
Minute guns were fired, bells were tolled, and a large 
procession olj, citizens followed the body through the city. 

On Thursday afternoon they reached Lexington. They 


were met at the canal by the corps of cadets, the pro- 
fessors of the Institute, and a large number of citizens, 
and escorted to the Institute barracks. 

The body of General Jackson was placed in the old 
lecture room which had once been his. Two years ago 
he had left it an humble and almost unknown man'; now 
he returned to it with the hero's laurel wreath encircling 
his brows, and enshrined forever in the hearts of his 
countrymen. With the exception of the heavy mourning 
drapery with which it was hung, the room was just as he 
had left it. It had not been occupied during his absence. 
The body was deposited just in front of the ghair in 
which he used to sit. It was a beautiful and a touching 
scene, and brought tears to every eye that witnessed it. 

Guns were fired every half hour during the day by the 
cadet battery, and the deepest grief exhibited by every 

The next day, the 15th of May, General Jackson was 
buried in the cemetery at Lexington, where rest the 
remains of his first wife and child. 

He- has gone, but his spirit is still with his countrymen. 
Oh ! may it animated each heart and nerve each arm to 
strike, as he struck, for the freedom of the land. 

There in the beautiful Valley of Virginia, with which 
his name is so imperishably connected, the hero lies 
sleeping. Around him the " everlasting hills" keep 
eternal guard, and the deep and unwavering love of his 
stricken, but still glorious mother, watches with tender 
devotion over his sacred dust. Ages shall roll away, 
empires crumble into dust, nations pass' into oblivion, 


but the memory of Jackson will still shine out in all its 
clear and radient splendor. And when the last preat 
trump shall sound, and the radient light of the resurrec- 
tion morn shall break away the gloom which overshrouds 
die world, Virginia, whose pure heart beats but for God 
md duty, shall there be found still watching by the tomb 
)f . Jackson. 

And yet, he is not Virginia's alone : God gave him to 
he world. '